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GiveLife.ca

    

PRINT EDITION
BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page B18

WILLIAM ANDERSON It is with great sadness that the family of William (Bill) Anderson shares the news of his passing on Saturday November 2, 2019 at Oakville Trafalgar Hospital at the age of 71.

Bill will be lovingly remembered by his children Erin Anderson (Michael), Kathryn Anderson (Chris), his partner Carole Betzold and his lifelong friends Nigel and Anne Fuller. Bill will also be missed by his granddaughter Eliza. Bill had a long and rewarding career in urban planning and economic development with the City of Toronto, Province of Ontario and latterly the municipality of Halton Hill, but he very much enjoyed golf and travels with Carole post retirement.

A Celebration of Bill's Life will take place at Kopriva Funeral Home, Lakeshore Rd., Oakville on Sunday, November 17th. Visitation will be at 11:00, with service at noon and reception to follow. A private interment will take place at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Odette Cancer Centre Sunnybrook Hospital would be appreciated.

JOHN EDWARD BAXTER (Ted) Died peacefully in Stratford, Ontario on November 4, 2019. He was born in Summerside, PEI, on December 9, 1927, the son of the Rev. Harry and Vida (MacCullum) Baxter. He moved frequently with his family from place to place during his early years, and attended high school in Grand Falls, NB, where he was valedictorian of his graduating class in 1944.

He was a graduate of Mount Allison University (BA mcl) and the University of Toronto (MA). He taught French at secondary schools in Port Perry and in North York, at Victoria Park S.S. and Don Mills Collegiate, where he served as head of the modern languages department until his retirement in 1986. In 1980 he was appointed to a oneyear term as the first poet laureate of the City of North York. After retiring, he began working as a free-lance translator. His translations include several novels and short stories by Jules Verne (some previously untranslated into English), a short biography of Canadian poet A.M. Klein, a history of the FLQ, and more than 400 short biographical articles for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography.

Predeceased by his parents and his elder brother Robert, he is survived by his wife Barbara, his sister Dorothy MacLeod (Ian) of Charlottetown, PEI, his son David (Hope) and grandson Cody of Pickering, ON, his son Peter of Stratford, On and granddaughter Ji Won, and his daughter Michelle of Ajax, ON, and grandsons Luca and Liam.

MARY LOUISA BEATTIE, CAIB Peacefully, on Monday November 4 2019, age 65, in Markham, ON, after a brief but courageous battle with cancer. Predeceased by parents, Elizabeth (Beth) Agnes Mary (nee Tremayne) and Allan Leslie Beattie.

Greatly mourned by husband, Tony D'Ambrosio; children, Heather and Mark Plath; and sisters, Elizabeth (James Greenshields), Barbara (Frank Aiello) and Leslie (David Prescott). Ex-wife of Harold Plath. Beloved aunt to Daniel (Emily), Victoria (Mario LaValle) and William Aiello, and Ian and Eric Prescott. Devoted stepmother to Daniel D'Ambrosio (Kimberly), Sarah D'Ambrosio (Christopher Bekiaris), and Nicole Beverley (Kyle), and proud Nana to Lukas, Owen, Charlotte, and Leo. Fondly remembered by many cousins and other members of her extended family.

Mary graduated in 1973 from Brock High School in Cannington, ON, and went on to have a successful career in the insurance business. She retired in 2014 after 28 years with Thomas I Hull Insurance Ltd., having risen to the position of Vice President.

Mary enjoyed nothing better than being at the cottage with family and friends. Fond memories of campfires under the stars will always be treasured.

Heartfelt thanks to all the dedicated and compassionate staff who cared for both Mary and her family caregivers in the Southlake Regional Health Centre and Markham Stouffville Hospital, especially Doctors Trinkaus and Dai, and the nurses in the Palliative Care Units of both hospitals.

Celebration of life on Sunday, November 10, 4:30 p.m., at Chapel Ridge Funeral Home, 8911 Woodbine Ave., Markham, ON. Private burial to take place at a future date.

In lieu of flowers, please consider donating to the Canadian Cancer Society, The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), or another charity of your choice.

WENDY GALE BOARDMAN (nee Burden) The family is very sad to announce the passing of Gale Boardman on October 31, 2019, at the age of 76 in Sarnia, Ontario. Gale, daughter of Isabel and Eaton Burden, is survived by her husband, Wayne and her sister, Jill Mingay and families.

Sadly, Gale suffered from declining health over the past few years. Her delightful sense of humour will be greatly missed by all who knew her.

LOUISE DUPUIS 1929 - 2019 It gives us great sadness to announce that Louise Dupuis passed with peace and grace at the Bradford Valley Community, Bradford Ontario, on Friday, October 25, 2019, at the age of 90, surrounded by her loving family.

Louise was the daughter of Anthime Paulette and Jeanne Meloche.

Louise was predeceased by her loving husband, Hector Dupuis, Sisters, Pauline and Suzanne Paulette, brother, Claude Paulette and her son, Alain Dupuis.

She is survived by her children, Patrice Dupuis (Helen), Sophie Dupuis(Guy), Frederic Dupuis (Pamela) as well as her sisters Denise and Helene Paulette. She was the proud grandmother of Olivier (Malinda), Stephane (Fiona), Veronique, Christian, Daniel, Felix & Jeremy and Great-grandmother of Lincoln and Paxton.

Louise lived a beautiful life with Hector, the love of her life.

She was a devoted and loving mother, grandmother and great-grandmother.

A celebration of her life will take place on Friday November 15, 2019 at 4 p.m. in the Chapel of the: Mont-Royal Funeral Complex, 1297 chemin de la Foret, Outremont, H2V 1P9 (514) 279-6540 http://www.mountroyalcem.com The doors will open at 3 p.m.

to allow friends to offer their condolences to the family prior to the celebration.

In lieu of flowers, if friends so desire, donations can be made in Louise's name to the Alzheimer's & Dementia Society of Canada.

The Family would like to thank the staff at Bradford Valley Community for the wonderful care they provided to Louise.

PAUL ANTHONY FLAHERTY On November 6, 2019, Paul Anthony Flaherty, in his 63rd year, peacefully passed away at his home in Whitehorse, Yukon.

Paul was a loving husband, father, grandfather, son, brother, uncle, friend and mentor to many.

Paul was born in Toronto on January 12, 1957, the eldest of 6, to Christine and Bernard Flaherty, and is survived by his wife Helen of 41 years, children: Michael, Ryan, Courtney and granddaughter Lily, Jaclyn and Jessen, and Craig.

After graduating from the University of Western Ontario in London, Paul's career with Bell Canada carried him across Ontario and Quebec and ultimately to Whitehorse as the President and CEO of Northwestel for the last 18 years.

Paul always encouraged the pursuit of education at all levels and the healthy competition found in sport. These interests culminated into his roles as the Chair of the Board of Governors at Yukon College for six years and the Canada Games Board of Directors for eleven years.

Paul also had an extreme love for the north and discovered it thoroughly by foot, raft, canoe, snowmobile, air and dogsled.

In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to the Paul Flaherty Bursary at Yukon College, Maryhouse or the Whitehorse Food Bank.

Visitation will be held at Heritage North Funeral Home, 412 Cook St., Whitehorse, YT, on Friday, November 8th at 2-4 p.m. and 7-9 p.m.

Funeral services will be held at Sacred Heart Cathedral, 406 Steele St., Whitehorse, YT, on Saturday, November 9th that 1 p.m. Reception to follow in the CYO Hall.

Interment will be held in Caledon, Ontario at St. Cornelius Church at a later date.

SHARON ANN FRANCIS (née MacIntyre) On Monday, October 21, 2019, surrounded by the love of her family and caregivers, Sharon Ann Francis passed away peacefully at her residence in Toronto, ON after a long journey with Alzheimer's disease.

Sharon brought light and laughter to the world. She was ever optimistic and a true force of energy. Known for her bright smile and warmth, she had tremendous empathy for others and a unique ability to personally connect with people she met. Sharon lived an adventurous and joyful life with her soulmate and husband of 53 years, Dr. Robert (Bob) Francis.

Sharon was born and raised in Sydney, NS with her large, very close-knit family and met Bob at St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, NS while she was training to be a nurse. Sharon had a passion for helping others which she had the opportunity to do through a lifetime in the medical profession, as a nurse and partner to Bob as they founded Medcan together in 1987.

Medcan focuses on preventative and exceptional patient care, and today, employs over 500 people and is one of the largest medical clinics in North America.

Sharon's family was always at the heart of her universe.

She was a loving daughter and sister, devoted mother of her two children, and adoring and proud grandmother to her six grandchildren. Coming together for frequent large family gatherings with her siblings, Sharon always brought fun and dance.

Sharon is lovingly remembered and survived by her husband, Dr. Robert Francis, her children and their spouses Shaun (Stacy) and Ashli Paige (David Flueck), and grandchildren, R.J., William, Christopher, Elle, Brooke and John. She will be dearly missed by her siblings, Marcella MacPhail (Walter), Mary Cheryl Berry (Roderick), Angus MacIntyre (Mary Evelyn), her large extended family of in-laws, nieces and nephews, and her ever-loyal canine companion, MacDuff. Sharon is predeceased by her parents, John and Chris MacIntyre, and her infant sister, Maureen Dolores.

A private service to honor Sharon was held in Toronto, ON last week. A memorial service to celebrate her life will be held in the near future.

Sharon suffered from Alzheimer's disease; in 2017 Bob founded the Sharon Francis Institute for Regenerative Medicine (SFIRM), a charity that funds innovative research studies in regenerative medicine. Advances in science funded through SFIRM will be an enduring piece of Sharon's legacy.

In lieu of flowers, donations in Sharon's memory can be made at http://www.sfirm.ca.

MARGARET ELEANOR GIBSON (nee Mackay) May 26, 1924 November 3, 2019 BA Hons (Queens University, Arts 47), Wren (WWII Royal Canadian Navy, Halifax) Margaret Gibson died peacefully at Fairmont Home in Kingston, surrounded by her family, in her 96th year. Loving wife of 40 years to the late Dr. Frederick W.

Gibson, beloved mother of John Gibson (Kimberly Gibson), Sarah Gibson-Bray (Carl Bray) and the late Matthew Gibson. Much loved grandmother to Lauren and Grant Gibson and Emma and James Gibson-Bray.

Margaret had a smile that lit up any room. Raised in Brockville, Kingston and Ottawa, Margaret interrupted her studies at Queen's to serve as a Canadian Wren in the RCN Gunnery Training School in Halifax, during the Battle of the Atlantic. Pursuing a varied career in journalism, Margaret worked latterly as a reporter for the Globe and Mail, before joining her true love Frederick in Kingston, where he was to teach History at Queen's for over 30 years. A devoted daughter, wife, mother, grandma, and loyal friend, Margaret was deeply involved at Queen's, serving on Boards for Faculty Women, Ban Righ and Alumnae/ Alumni, as well as for St. Mary's of the Lake Hospital, Kingston Wrens, and Sydenham Street Church. Gifted with a curious and intelligent mind, Margaret loved children, books, the arts, nature, history, skiing, tennis, dancing, swimming, soft pussycats and a really good cup of tea.

Family and friends will be received at Robert J. Reid & Sons "The Chapel on the Corner", 309 Johnson Street (at Barrie St.)

on Friday, November 15 from 2-4 p.m. and 7-9 p.m. Please join us in a celebration of Margaret's life at Sydenham Street United Church, 82 Sydenham Street in Kingston, on Saturday, November 16 at 12 noon.

Memorial donations in Margaret's name may be made to the Frederick W. Gibson Prize in History (Queen's), the Ban Righ Foundation, Sydenham Street United Church or Friends of the Spire Inc.

A special thanks to the staff of St. Lawrence Place and Arbour Heights, Cheryl Foster and Heart to Heart Senior Services, and Dr. Kathie Kilpatrick and the staff of Fairmont Home, for their wonderful loving care and support. Online condolences may be made at http://www.reidfuneralhome.com

KATHARINE GRASS (nee Cochran) On November 5, 2019, just 2 months to the day before her 94th birthday, Katy left us to join our Dad, her husband Ruly (March 11, 2006). As well as her adult children, David (Deb Stephens), Bob and Sarah (Jim Kissick), she leaves six grandchildren, Virginia, Jeff and Will, Patrick and Diane, Doreyjean; and greatgrandchild Honor.

Katy assumed the role of family matriarch, in a long line of Grannie Grasses better known as GG. Daughter of Shrimp, Honor, sister of David Cochran, Katy enjoyed world travel especially to New York to watch her Uncle Hume Cronyn perform on stage and cherished her summers at Camp Tanamakoon. Her time at camp fostered her love of the outdoors. Her school years included Havergal College, Compton in the Eastern Townships of Quebec and Shaw Business College.

She enjoyed athletics including field hockey, basketball and skiing.

Following her father's extraordinary military career, during WWII Katy joined the Women's Royal Naval Service stationed on the east coast of Canada working in aerial photo reconnaissance. During this time, she developed lifelong friends who joined together for world trips and the infamous annual "Claude Balls" Golf Tournament.

Following her marriage to Ruliff, aka Toot, in 1949, she settled in to raise a household and pursue her passions through her volunteer leadership for the Toronto Garden Club Society and the National Ballet School Scholarship Fund. Her plate was full and didn't lessen when they moved to Calgary in 1981 where she created a flower design unit for the Four Seasons Hotel. GG and Toot then moved to Canmore and volunteered for the 1988 Winter Olympics as delegate hosts. GG loved hosting, welcoming with great warmth anyone who needed a place to "crash," loved the mountains of Canmore, skiing, hiking and golfing, never deterred by the bears or cougars. GG and Toot returned to Ontario in 2002, settling in Barrie to be close to friends and family.

Donations to a charity of choice or The Sunnybrook Foundation - Janet Grass Fund would be appreciated.

JASON BRIAN HOWE It is with profound sadness that we announce that Jason Brian Howe passed away in Scottsdale Arizona on July 1, 2019, at 47 years of age. Jason was the dear husband of Kimberly and proud father of Spencer and Madison. He is also survived by his grandmother, Alice Howe, Tillsonburg, ON; parents, Brian and Pat Howe, Lake Wales, FL; Dinah and Don Smart, Blenheim, ON; brother, James and Katherine Howe and daughter, Ella, Oakville, ON; mother-in-law, Jo-Anne Ainsworth Welsh, Toronto, ON; father-in-law, Bill Welsh, Ottawa, ON; and sisters-in-law, Kathryn Welsh, Oakville, ON and Kristine Welsh, Unionville, ON.

Jason was born in London, Ontario where he resided through his graduation from Western University before moving to Toronto, Calgary and Scottsdale.

He lived life to the fullest, filled every room with his enthusiasm and was passionate about his family, health and fitness, music and giving back to his community.

Jason will be forever remembered by his aunts, uncles, cousins and friends. May he rest in peace.

JULIA ANN KEELING (née Woodrow) Julia died peacefully on Sunday, October 20, 2019, after a long struggle with cancer. She was born on November 20, 1949, to the late Barbara and Donald Woodrow. She will be greatly missed by many people including her husband, David; her children and their families - Simon, Miche, Nyah and Cora; Jeremy, Willow and Archer; Nicholas and Tracey; Rachel, Steve and Rosalyn - the extended family, and numerous friends and colleagues.

A Service of Thanksgiving for Julia's life will take place on Saturday, November 9 at 1 p.m.

at Grace Church on-the-Hill, 300 Lonsdale Road, Toronto, with a reception following. There will be a Visitation on Friday, November 8 between 7 and 9 p.m. at Humphrey Funeral Home, 1403 Bayview Avenue, Toronto.

In lieu of flowers, please make a donation either to La Leche League Canada, PO Box 147, Pickering, ON L1V 2R2 or to The Kensington Hospice, 38 Major Street, Toronto M5S 2L1.

CO NSTANCE MARY LANGSTAFF (nee Holland) 97 years young, Connie died peacefully on Sunday, November 3, 2019, at Belmont House.

She was the widow of the late T.

James Barr, W. Douglas Terry and Dr. James R. Langstaff. Mother of Margie Barr (Paul Fisher), Jennifer Barr (Phillip Saunders) and the late Hugh Barr. Nannie of James and Christopher Fisher, Alexandra Wharin and Tessa and Mark Saunders. Sister of the late Hugh Peter Holland.

Connie's children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren were her absolute joy.

Connie was born in Winnipeg and moved to Toronto in 1937. She attended St. Clements School and then graduated from Toronto General Hospital as a Registered Nurse, making lifelong friends along the way. Connie was a born nurse and loved taking care of others.

In 1948, she married Jim Barr and later settled in Thornhill, a community she loved and lived in until 2010. Connie was a wonderful wife, mother, grandmother, great-grandmother, friend and neighbour. She loved entertaining family and friends and her Sunday dinners were legendary. Many turned to her for her wise counsel. When asked, she offered sound advice, but always with love and compassion.

In Thornhill, Connie and Jim raised their children and had a close circle of friends. Their backyard pool was a focal point for informal entertaining, family celebrations - always with several black labradors in attendance and surrounded by Connie's beautiful gardens.

She never forgot a birthday, anniversary, graduation or other individual accomplishment and her small acts of kindness (and delivery of cookies) were appreciated by all.

After being widowed twice, Connie found love again, much to her delight, when she married Dr.

Jim Langstaff. His family was also very special to her.

For the last ten years, Connie lived very happily at Belmont House.

The family would like to thank the outstanding staff at Belmont, her devoted caregivers and her lifelong friend David who visited her every week.

A service for Connie will be held at Christ Church Deer Park, 1570 Yonge Street, Toronto on Thursday, November 21st at 2:00 p.m., followed by a reception at the church. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Connie's memory to Belmont House Foundation or The Nature Conservancy of Canada. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

JANE MERILYN LITT (née Hildebrand) December 22, 1927 November 2, 2019 Jane was raised in Toronto and Montreal, the daughter of Dorothea Roper and Edward Hildebrand, along with her brother Bruce. She attended Forest Hill and Bedford Park public schools in Toronto, Trafalgar School for Girls in Montreal (Head Girl, General Proficiency Prize and Latin Prize, 1944), McGill and McMaster universities, then the Ontario College of Education (OCE) in Toronto. At the start of her career she taught English literature at collegiate institutes in Clinton and Picton, Ontario. At OCE she had met Raymond Litt, a former RCAF pilot.

After marrying in 1953, they moved to Vankleek Hill, Ontario, where Ray was a high school science teacher.

They started a family, beginning with David and Andy, then, after they moved to Port Perry in 1957, Paul and Margaret. Their household at 324 Queen Street always included a Labrador retriever of notable personality. Jane taught English in Blackstock, Ontario (which boasted Ontario's smallest high school), then later became the assistant librarian at Port Perry High School. She was active behind the scenes in local causes, including the United Church Women, the campaign to save the old town hall, and the building of the new Port Perry library.

Her home was a welcoming sanctuary where a changing ensemble of neighbours, friends, kids' friends, and assorted others dropped in to visit. Jane's genius was empathy. She instinctively tended to the emotional wellbeing of everyone she knew. She appreciated and celebrated the good things life offered, and, when challenges emerged, was always ready to draw from personal experience or her wide reading a precedent for dealing with them, frequently supplementing it with an apt quotation from a poem. When family or friends were far away, she corresponded prodigiously. In retirement her many grandchildren became the beneficiaries of her emotional and cultural stewardship, learning lessons from Milton without recognizing their provenance. Jane contended with health challenges in her last three years. Prior to that she lived a rich, humane life.

And now the sun had stretch'd out all the hills, And now was dropp'd into the western bay; At last he rose, and twitch'd his mantle blue: To-morrow to fresh woods, and pastures new.

JOSEPH LOBO "Joe" March 12, 1925 August 7, 2019 Passed away peacefully at the age of 94, surrounded by his family in Porvorim, Goa, India. Beloved husband of and survived by his wife of 67 years, Bertha Lobo (nee Remedios, of Saligao, Goa).

Loving and caring father of his children Raymond (Maureen), Edmund (Lydia), Rosalind (Euclid) and Osmond (Sucheta). Loving and delightful grandfather to Christopher, Colin, and CarolAnne, Christabelle, Andrew and Annabelle, Charissa and Chayne.

He lived a long and fulfilled life.

He was born in Mombasa,Kenya and worked in Lira,Kampala and Entebbee in Uganda.

In 1970 he happily retired to his beloved Goa (Saligao and then to Alto Betim). He loved his long, winding strolls, worshipped his wife's cooking and was happiest in the company of family, meals and celebrations.

His life's creed was always, down to earth simplicity and heartfelt conscientiousness in word and in deed. This is his legacy and spirit.

ARTHUR FINLAY MACKENZIE December 6, 1919 November 2, 2019 A loving son, father, husband, brother, uncle and gifted teacher.

Fin was the fifth of seven children born into a missionary family stationed at the British concession in Tientsin, China. He attended the Canadian Academy in Kobe, Japan (1932-1937). As a Flight Officer in the RCAF during WWII Fin served as a navigator stationed in Cumbria, England.

Fin met his beloved wife June at the University of Alberta before continuing his graduate studies at the University of Toronto, Yale and the University of London.

In the 1950's Finlay managed Collette's Chinese Art Gallery in London, England before writing internationally renowned book about Chinese art.

Following June's death in 1960, he returned to Canada with his infant son, where Fin flourished as a muchloved art teacher at Aldershot Secondary School in Burlington, Ontario. In his retirement Finlay was an active member of the University of Toronto's Academy for Life-Long Learning.

A gentleman and a scholar, Fin was unwaveringly passionate about ideas, current events and thoughtful conversation. A talented and creative soul, Fin expressed his ideas by exploring a variety of forms of visual art including landscape painting, pen and ink sketching and pottery.

Finlay was preceded in death by his wife June Mackenzie (née Wiseman) (1924-1960) He is survived by his sister Louise McLean, his son Bill, and numerous nieces and nephews.

MURIEL PATRICIA MACNAUGHTON Our dearest Mom Pat, passed away peacefully surrounded by her family on Tuesday, November 5, 2019, at the age of 98, in Toronto, ON. Predeceased by her loving husband of 49 years, Martin Paul Macnaughton (Mac), she was a loving mother of her children: Jennifer (Bill Stensson), Nancy (Rick Hilborn), Heather (Dave Dunphy), Carol (Russ Martin) and James. Proud grandmother (Grammy) to, Erik (Alexis Shand), Anna, Jane, Brita (Jordy Lacko), Ian (Nathalie Newby), Mackie (Shannon Blackman), Lisa (Tyler Laycock), Cameron, Ashleigh, Nicole, and great-grandmother of Mitchell, and Finley. Predeceased by her close siblings, Florence, Roderick, Phyllis and James, and her British born parents, Tracy Deavin LeMay and Florence Muriel Fereday Paget Mayne.

Pat was an accomplished duplicate bridge player, and did crosswords, suduko, and jumble every day. She loved all animals very much. Growing up, there was always a family dog and she cherished the many years she spent as a volunteer for the Toronto Humane Society. She was also an active member and sadly the last member of the Gordon Road Ladies Group, a ladies social group that was active for over 50 years. Pat was fortunate to spend every summer of her married life at our beloved cottage on Lake Simcoe. Her last visit was for our annual Thanksgiving feast 2019, where she was surrounded by her entire family right down to her great grandkids. She was funny, quirky and smart, embraced life to the very end and will be deeply missed by family and friends. The whole family loved her very much.

Services will be held on Wednesday, November 13th at 11:00 a.m. at St. John's York Mills Anglican Church, 19 Don Ridge Drive, North York, ON M2P 1H3 with lunch following the service. Donations may be made to the Toronto Humane Society at 11 River Street, Toronto, ON M5A 4C2. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

WILLIAM FLEMING MCCORMICK "Bill" Dad lived an extraordinary life that ended on Saturday, October 5, 2019 at the age of 99. He grew up in Galt, and attended The University of Toronto, (Trinity College). WWII interrupted his studies when he enlisted with the 1st Hussars. Upon completing two years of training in England Bill, as Commander of C Squadron, landed on Juno Beach on D-Day.

Although Bill's time in the war was brief, it was historic when he reached the furthest point into enemy territory during the D-Day invasion. Bill was injured less than a week later, but his courage and resilience through the war served him well in life. He was a recipient of the French Legion of Honor for his contribution in the war. He was forever mindful of the many soldiers who did not return home, and he strove to live his life in a way that honoured their great sacrifice.

Returning to Galt, Bill took over the family business from his father and uncle and built Galtex into a thriving textile company. Giving to the community was important to Bill, who became actively involved in the expansion of the Cambridge Memorial Hospital as Chair of the Building Committee.

He served as the Honourary Colonel of the Highland Fusiliers, was a supporter of Central Presbyterian Church and served on numerous boards.

Together with his wife, Marion, they travelled the world, visiting over 60 countries, but the spot he enjoyed most was their family cottage on Little Lake Joseph.

Family was central to Dad, as evidenced at the cottage where all were welcomed including their many friends. Dad enjoyed the outdoors, whether fishing in the North West Territories, hunting at the Griffith Island Club or playing a game of golf at the Muskoka Lakes Golf and Country Club.

Everywhere he went, Bill made friends through his genuine interest in others, his charm and his great wit.

Left to celebrate his life and to take enduring pride and inspiration from his legacy are his children, Elizabeth (David Edmison), Walter (Barbara); his grandchildren, Geoffrey Cardy, Baye Mahoney (Justin), Alexander Edmison (Dana), Jocelyn Edmison, Stephanie Edmison (Eden), William McCormick (Melanie), Maggie and Connor McCormick; and his great-grandchildren, Sophie and Maxwell Edmison and Grayson and Oliver Mahoney.

Remembered also by Cam Joyner.

Predeceased by his beloved wife, Marion (nee Dietrich), and his daughter, Margaret.

The family would like to express their appreciation to the marvelous caregivers who took such wonderful care of Bill; Regie and Joy, Zeny, Glenda and Maricel, Dr. Russell Goldman and Dr.

Jennifer Shapiro and The Temmy Latner Palliative Care Centre.

A celebration of Bill's life will be held at 3:00 p.m. on Wednesday, November 13th in Timothy Eaton Memorial Church, 230 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto, ON M4V 1R5.

In lieu of flowers, the family would ask that friends consider contributions in memory of Bill to the Juno Beach Centre, McDermott House Canada, or Vets Canada. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

BRUCE SCOTT MCCUBBIN February 22, 1941 - O ctober 29, 2019 Bruce was a force of strength, intelligence and kindness. His wife, Elizabeth will love and miss him always as will his sister, Heather; his children, Jill (George), Beth (Martin), Colin (Katie) and Sally (Clayton); and his grandchildren, Calvin, Pippa, Finn, Alice and Charlie. Bruce will also be missed by brothers-in-law, Bob (Brenda) and David, as well as all his nieces and nephews.

Bruce lead an active childhood in which sports, scouting and academics were significant. At Montreal High, by way of both luck and merit, Bruce was a member of a very special, multi-ethnic group of bright young men, the self-proclaimed 'inner circle', the class of 11B, 1958. Sixty years later, these friends still reunite. They continue to offer companionship, inspiration and care for each other.

An early memorable event in Bruce's life was hitchhiking with his friend Emmett from Montreal to Vancouver, seventeen year olds in their scout uniforms. It took them 4 days.

Bruce ran track, swam, and played basketball and football in high school.

At Mount Allison University in Sackville, NB, he played on the varsity teams.

Bruce met his wife Betty at Mount A. and also made the closest friendships of his life.

Bruce graduated from Mount Allison and Nova Scotia Tech with a degree in Electrical engineering in 1965. The same year, he headed back to Montreal, where Betty was employed at Air Canada, and they were married.

Bruce's professional life was very meaningful to him. He started his career as a Design Engineer at Imperial Tobacco, then held various senior positions with Imasco in both the US and Canada. A highlight was his term as President of Collegiate Sports and during this period he travelled extensively.

Time with his family was equally important. March break holidays, and New Year's skating parties with the old Mount A friends were annual family traditions. While living in Montreal, they summered at Lac Castor in the Laurentian Mountains with Bruce's parents and sister. More recently, he enjoyed curling with family and friends at the much-anticipated annual Christmas event.

In 1984, life at the Stony Lake cottage began, and many new and dear friends were made. Bruce was a warden at St Peter's on the Rock church, where his son Colin later married Katie, the daughter of another family on Stony.

In 1997, Bruce joined Moosehead Breweries in Saint John NB as President and COO and later became CEO. Working closely with the Oland family was one of the high points of Bruce's career.

Bruce served as Chairman of Mount Allison's Board of Regents. He truly enjoyed participating on the Boards of family-owned Maritime companies: Oxford Frozen Foods, Acadian Seaplants, Coast Tire and Ganong Bros.

Reluctant to leave, his last board meeting with Acadian Seaplants was in August 2019.

As Megan Grant wrote, in an article on the Olympics: "Good Sportsmanship is about winning with integrity and losing with grace. It's about respecting someone who beats you. It's about giving your all, playing fair, and walking away from the game with your head held high - regardless of whether you won or lost." The principles of sportsmanship informed Bruce's life and he passed down this philosophy to his children.

Bruce and Betty cherish their grandchildren, who arrived in 'two waves' Calvin, Pippa and Finn over 20 years before now three- and four-year-olds, Charlie and Alice. For the past 7 years Bruce has persevered, living with Parkinson's, never complaining. His spirit and influence never diminished.

He will be dearly missed by his wife and family. He was a hard-working and enthusiastic husband, brother, father, friend and colleague. A celebration of his life will be held in the New Year at Stony Lake.

GEORGE S.B. MOAD June 3, 1946 - October 31, 2019 George finished his earth walk when his big heart stopped beating.

George was a large man with a kind and generous heart, who lived his adventuresome life with gusto. A great friend to many, he was always 100% on duty, available 24/7, if they needed him.

Born in a now historically designated log cabin in Bourlamaque, Quebec, he and his older brother, Arthur (who survives him), lived in Mexico and Washington State before the family settled in Thetford Mines, Quebec.

George played drums in a rock band in Montreal and raced cars, which undoubtedly lead to his early and profound hearing loss. George moved to Ontario at the time of the FLQ Crisis.

Throughout most of his working life he was an entrepreneur. He travelled across Canada pioneering the then new media of "mall posters" in shopping centres. His survival after being speared and impaled in his car while driving along the west bound 401 early one rush hour morning was amazing - he then restarted his business against all odds. George was very determined, persistent and focused.

George believed that service to others was the best gift one could have in life. George was the driving force behind the 10th Toronto Cub Pack (at Christ Church Deer Park) in the late 70s/early 80s. As the Akela, his larger than life personality brought an immense sense of energy and excitement to the boys and leadership team, attracting them from throughout the neighbourhood. The pack was one of the strongest in the entire region. Monday night meetings, special outings and weekend camping trips were infused with his combination of fun-loving joie-de-vivre, no-nonsense drive to do things well, and great humour. He helped shape the lives of hundreds of boys and many still talk fondly about this big figure from these seminal growing-up years.

He was active in the Toronto Junior Board of Trade and the Toronto Jaycees. For the 1970 Grey Cup George arranged for Anne Murray to be its Honorary Chief Parade Marshall. He was involved in many projects such as the Santa Claus Parade and Policeman of the Month. With his insight and innovative thinking he could get anything done. The typing school he initiated for unemployed women in Regent Park was a huge success. Being named worldwide Jaycee Senator # 20451 was a shining moment in all his long list of accomplishments.

He was an expert networker. Armed with a rolodex of business cards from everyone he ever met, he thought nothing of approaching people who might normally have never given him the time of day. He had a real knack of connecting people in need with the right people to help. In retirement he continued his volunteer work - Meals on Wheels, Bob Rumble Centre for the Deaf - always wanting to make a difference and do things for others less fortunate. He had a special fondness for vets, the elderly and the personal success and growth of many young people. He was active in the Kerry Blue Terrier Club of Canada, serving on the Board, assisting with Rescue, doing hospitality and motoring to dog shows in Canada and the US.

He had a true love for politics both in Canada and the U.S. Although never shy about sharing his opinions, he was always open to well thought-out opposing views. He was a tireless supporter of local politicians whom he thought deserved his time, energy and good will. He was a great storyteller - people loved to listen to his tales - an engaging conversationalist and an attentive host who enjoyed parties, celebrations and having fun.

He was laid to rest in a private burial, wearing his Patton t-shirt with the theme from the movie "Patton" playing. A pair of doves circled the grave as his wife, Louise Lang, and their Kerry Blue, Betty Boop, looked on.

Donations to Speaking of Dogs Rescue, P.O. Box 8058, RPO Hurontario, Collingwood, ON L9Y 0H1 https://www.speakingofdogs.com/ or an animal charity of your choice would be appreciated. Please say a little prayer for George so that his soul can safely journey back to the light. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

THEHONOURABLE J. EDGAR SEXTON P. Eng . , LLB, QC .

Peacefully at his Brockville home on November 1, 2019, at the age of 83 with his family by his side. Beloved and devoted husband of Rosemary for 40 years. Cherished father and stepfather to Chris Sexton (Wendy Daniels), Jennifer Sexton (Pierre Binette), Stephanie Black (Mark Youngman) and Robin Black. Predeceased by his son, Tim. Loving grandfather to Jack, Gillian, Lindsay, Laila and Chloe.

Born in 1936 to George Beaumont Sexton MD and his wife, Irene (Griffith) of London, ON. Brother of Peggy MacKay and Barbara (Patrick) Munroe. Brother-in-law of Judy (Paul) Rivard, John (Deborah) Robinson and Minette Ross (Peter). Fond uncle of many nephews and nieces.

Edgar Sexton was one of Canada's foremost litigators. After obtaining an Engineering Degree at Queen's in 1958, he graduated in 1963 from the University of Western Ontario Faculty of Law founded several years earlier by Dean Ivan Rand whom he regarded as his first mentor. He articled at McCarthy's under renowned counsel John J. Robinette but chose to return to London, ON, his hometown, with his then young family to practise with a two-man firm. He returned to Toronto within a few years to join the McKinnon McTaggart law firm led by Bert McKinnon. When Justice McKinnon was appointed to the Ontario Court of Appeal, Edgar Sexton left the firm to become counsel for Holden Murdoch. Several years later he was offered the job of head of litigation for Osler Hoskin where he worked for over two decades, becoming Chairman and Senior Partner of the firm. His clients included the Irving family of New Brunswick, the Federal Government and many large international corporations. While he was at Osler, the firm expanded to open offices in Calgary, New York, London, Paris, and Hong Kong. He was appointed to the Federal Court of Appeal in 1998 and served on the bench until 2011 when he turned 75. For the next few years he did mediation and arbitration work for JAMS and also consulted with the Canadian government.

Justice Sexton was a kind, thoughtful and measured man. He treated everyone he met with the same courtesy and respect, no matter who they were or where they came from. In his personal interactions, he had a calm, unruffled demeanour and a lovely amiable nature. Yet in the courtroom he could be a fierce and unyielding opponent. Once he took on a legal brief, he pursued it meticulously, fearlessly and relentlessly. With his strategic focus and logical, practical brain, he had an uncanny ability to distill vastly complicated cases into a few simple basic principles. He loved to work with his juniors and help them learn and he, in turn, learned a great deal from them. He had a self-deprecating sense of humour and loved to tell stories, sometimes the same ones more than once.

For many years he and Rosemary travelled the world, latterly on cruise ships. Golf was a favourite pastime and they were members of the Brockville Country Club, the Mid Ocean Club in Bermuda and the Longboat Key Club in Florida where he recorded his only hole-in-one. He also belonged to the Toronto Club and the Caledonian Club in London, England. Antique mahogany boats were another hobby and he spent many happy hours roaring around Charleston Lake in his 1941 Chris Craft named After Taxes. He also owned a dippy (disappearing propeller boat) called Empty Pockets but sold it after more than a few engine malfunctions left him stranded at the mercy of the elements.

Historic houses were another interest of his. He took great pleasure in his Rosedale residence (the Laura Secord house) on Castle Frank Road, and in Thornton Cliff, his thirty-room stone house, circa 1855,complete with slate roof and turret, located on the St. Lawrence River in Brockville. He and Rosemary also lived in scenic Rockcliffe Park, Ottawa during his time as a judge and spent six months a year at their house on Longboat Key, an island off Sarasota, FL.

One of his favourite places to be was Fisher Island on Charleston Lake, a 55-acre island acquired at the turn of the century by his grandfather, who did so by paying off the $100 tax bill of an indigent friend. Watching sunsets from the cedar deck of his cottage, a Scotch in hand, brought him much inner peace and contentment up to his last summer. In his final years, he suffered from advancing dementia. However, even as his memory declined, he never lost his sweet personality which, if anything, became more flexible and docile as he aged. As his mind weakened and his body failed and was racked with pain, he chose assisted dying before he could deteriorate any further and become a burden to his family. Words cannot describe the hole in our hearts that remains without his calm, steadying and blessed presence to guide us.

Arrangements are entrusted to the Irvine Funeral Home, 4 James Street East, Brockville. Messages of condolence may be sent online to www. irvinememorial.com. A gathering to honour Justice Sexton's memory will be held in Toronto at University of Toronto's Faculty Club, 41 Wilcocks Street, on May 7, 2020 from 1:30 to 5 p.m.

WAYNE LEO NARD LAING SIMMONS M a rc h 1 7, 1 92 0 N ove m b e r 7, 2 01 9

With infinite sadness, the family of Wayne Leonard Laing Simmons announce his passing on November 7, 2019, in his 100th year.

Cherished husband of the late Harriet Cronk Simmons. Dearly beloved father of Jane Calder (Dr. Iain Calder), Ottawa, Kathryn Burns (Dr. Robert Burns), Belleville and Dr. Maureen Simmons, Belleville. Adored grandfather of Bruce Calder (Patricia Calder), Andrew Calder (Christy Doucet) and James Calder (Jessica Fontaine), Ottawa; Robert Burns (Casey Sharp) Ottawa; Dr. Kathryn Burns (Robert Hellyer), Calgary and Christopher Johnson, Toronto. Proud greatgrandfather of Logan and Claire Calder; Ethan and Alex Calder; Sam and Asher Calder; and Blaire, Hugh and William Burns.

Trenton, Ontario was his home for his entire life. He graduated from Albert College in 1939. During World War II, he served in the Royal Canadian Navy in the North Atlantic. In February 1947, he was a member of the first Veterans' class to graduate from the University of Toronto with a BPharm. At the time of his father's death in 1954, he took over the family business, Simmons Pharmacy. After the store was tragically destroyed in a 1978 fire, he became a pharmacist owner for Shoppers Drug Mart, making its Trenton pharmacy one of the most successful in Canada.

He loved to travel but most of all he loved his cottage property on Lake Ontario where he enjoyed his time with family and friends.

There will be a private graveyard service. Visitation will be held at the Trent Port Marina on Saturday, November 16th from 1 to 4 p.m. Donations to his favourite charity, The Salvation Army, or to the Trenton Memorial Hospital Foundation would be appreciated.

The family gratefully acknowledges the exceptional and devoted care of his many caregivers in his later years, including Dr. Andrew Forbes and Dr. Joseph Campbell; Mary Jane Cunningham and Lisa Johnson. The family deeply appreciates the care given by Dr. Nadia Knarr, Dr. David de Grace and the wonderful staff at Trenton Memorial Hospital.

He was a kind, thoughtful and generous man who always made one smile. We are blessed to have had him in our lives.

For online condolences, please visit http://www.quintecremationservices.com

ANNE NOREEN SIMPON (nee Lelliott)

Peacefully on Monday, October 28, 2019 at St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, in her 88th year. Beloved wife of "Jack", Walter John. Daughter of the late Doris and William Lelliott. Loving mother of Maureen (Almos Tassonyi), Richard (Karen), Nancy (the late Douglas Austin), Jacqueline (Douglas Whitten) and the late Christopher (Kimberly Cail). Cherished grandmother of Craig (Kim), Bryan (Jenny), Lindsay (Mike), Michelle, Meghan (Jason), Marin (Joshua), Carleigh, Nicole (Ryan), Rory and Stephen. Devoted greatgrandmother of Matthew, Nora, Jordan, Xander, Liam and Harper. Sister of John (Vivian) Lelliott and the late William (the late Ada) Lelliott. Sister-in-law of Shirley (the late Paul) Simpson, the late Eilean (the late Harold) Carlaw, the late Shirley Seguire, and Bill Sequire. Anne will be sadly missed by her many nieces, nephews, cousins, extended family and friends.

Alongside Jack, she not only raised a family but built a very successful telecommunications business throughout their 68 years of marriage. She loved to travel and did so extensively with family, business and later accompanying Jack around the world for international and commonwealth fly fishing competitions. Together they made many friends across Canada and around the globe. Anne was an avid gardener, and took pride in her many plants, flowers and deck tomatoes.

A memorial service will be held on Saturday, November 9, 2019 at 1 pm at MacCoubrey Funeral Home, 30 King St. E. in Cobourg followed by a reception in the Funeral Home Reception Centre. With heartfelt thanks to Dr. Steven McLellan, Dr. Naresh Kumar, Dr. R. Chisholm, the many staff at St. Michael's Hospital who cared for Anne, and especially to Dr. Akshay Bagai, for his attentive and compassionate care for the past two years. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Heart and Stroke Foundation or to the charity of your choice would be appreciated. Condolences received at http://www.MacCoubrey.com

ROBERT PAUL SINGER April 26, 1926 November 2, 2019 Bob passed away peacefully with his wife of 72 years and family by his side. He was predeceased by his parents, Hazel and Joseph and brothers, Marshall (Betty) and Stuart (Rosalie). He will be dearly missed by his wife, Dickey (Mary- Susanne); sons, Tom (Joanne) and Peter (Cathie); and grandchildren, Carolyn (Brian), David (Karrie), Scott (Mia), Jennifer (Philip), and Jeffrey (Michelle). He was the proud Great-Grandfather of ten - William, Caleb, Liam, Teddy, Ana, Charlotte, Madeline, Leo, Olivia, and George.

Bob lived a full life in his 93 years. He was a graduate of Upper Canada College (1943) and the University of Toronto, Engineering (4T7) where he enjoyed membership of the Sigma Chi Fraternity. He built up a remarkable business and was proud to see his two sons and grandsons continue the 107 year-old family business legacy with Reinhart Foods and Thomas, Large and Singer. In his spare time he enjoyed curling (their team was a member of the exclusive 8-ender club!), golf, volunteering, and travel.

Bob was a gregarious man, building a wide circle of friends whether that was in Toronto, Lake Simcoe, Naples, Florida, or during his and Dickey's many international trips. Bob often jokingly referred to his love for dogs over people and had many dogs and granddogs over the years. He was very close to all of his Grandchildren - he took each on their first big trip, sparking their love of travel; never missed an important milestone event; or any opportunity to spend time with family.

Granddad, you will be deeply missed but we treasure the amount of time that we had with you. We hope you are with your beloved dogs and have finally found the "price of coal in Kukaramunga."

A private family service has been held. The family would like to thank the Integracare Team, Doctor Victor Cellarius and Doctor Russell Goldman from the Temmy Latner Centre and so many others who lovingly assisted in his care. In lieu of flowers, the family would appreciate donations to Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital Foundation, the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care or a charity of your choice.

BERNARD STAIMAN (Bernie) Passed away peacefully on Friday, November 8, 2019 at Bridgepoint Health. Beloved husband of the late Shirley Staiman. Loving father of Deborah, and Scott Staiman. Dear brother of the late Saul, and Sam Staiman, and Rose Gold. Loving Poppa of Eli (Lauren), Yael (Rob), A.J., and R e b e c c a . D e a r g r e a t - grandfather of Brooks. A graveside service will be held on Sunday, November 10th at 2:00 p.m. at Beth Tzedec Memorial Park, 5822 Bathurst Street. Shiva at 112 Hillsdale A v e n u e W . , T o r o n t o . Memorial donations may be made to Mt. Sinai Hospital Foundation 416-586-8203 or Bridgepoint Palliative Care 416-461-8252 ext 2771.

ESTHER MARGARET STEKETEE (nee Scott) Passed away peacefully at her place of residence on Wednesday, November 6, 2019.

She leaves her stepson, Jim (Jo). Lovingly remembered by her step grandchildren Devin (Leanne), Garrett (Lisa) Sabrina (Johnny), Jackson, Jade, Justin and Vanessa. She is the great-grandmother of Tayler, Jaxon, Aiden, Jacob, Noah, Freya and Amelia. She was preceded by her beloved husband Richard, P. Eng and her stepdaughter Kathey loved and remembered by her daughter-in-law, Patricia Steketee, as well as Janice Kantor, Ann and Dave Parker, Sue and Jack Ward, Tennis Reynolds, her relatives and many friends.

Esther was a graduate of Victoria University and received her Master's Degree at the University of Niagara. After graduation she was employed by the T. Eaton Company; worked in the executives offices add-on various merchandising areas. As a result of this experience, Esther later owned and operated a boutique in Niagara on the Lake. In 1961 she entered the teaching profession and spent 13 years as an instructor and Director o f B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n Departments in a variety of locations surrounding the city of Toronto, the Niagara P e n i n s u l a , i n c l u d i n g secondment to the University of Toronto.

Esther was co-author and author of business textbooks, education consultant for a television program on business procedures, served on curriculum committees and conducted workshops on teaching methodology. As the result of Esther's contribution to business education, in 1979 she received the Robert Hillmer Award, an award given each year for an outstanding contribution to business education in the province of Ontario.

Esther was known for her sincere, caring personality, and throughout her career assisted physically and emotionally handicapped children and their pursuit of meaningful and independent lives.

Esther was a member of the Boulevard Club, Burlington and Thornhill Golf and Country. Although time and opportunities were limited, Esther's leisure time included piloting an airplane and skydiving.

Private cremations and burial have taken place. Donations to a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

DR. HELLE TUPHOLME (nee Solu) B.Sc., DDS 1944 - 21019

Beloved wife, cherished mother and grandmother, Helle passed away peacefully at her home in Niagara-on-the-Lake on October 30, 2019. Helle will forever be remembered by her devoted husband, Brian; her son, Michael and his wife, Meghan; her daughter, Kristi Ellenzweig and her husband, Jonathan Ellenzweig; as well as by her adored grandchildren, Paige and Brooke Tupholme and Heidi and Leo Ellenzweig. Helle also leaves her brothers, Peter Solu of Toronto and Mart Solu of Sarasota, Florida. Helle was born in Helsinki, Finland to parents Paul and Agnes Solu, who had fled from Estonia to Finland during the late stages of World War II, and who moved shortly thereafter to Sweden. In the early-1950s, Helle and her parents moved to Canada, settling in Toronto. There, Helle attended Swansea Public School and Humberside Collegiate Institute. She then obtained a B.Sc. degree at the University of Toronto before enrolling in the Faculty of Dentistry, also at the University of Toronto, receiving her DDS degree in 1971. Over the following thirty-seven years, Helle practiced dentistry in Toronto, opening and running several offices where she cared for a large and devoted following of patients. In addition to her practice, Helle was a part-time faculty member at the University of Toronto's Dental School and served on several committees at the Royal College of Dental Surgeons of Ontario. In Toronto, Helle and Brian were long-time residents of the Baby Point area where they enjoyed an active social life and where they raised their children, Michael and Kristi. Helle was actively involved in the Estonian Community in Toronto. Notably, in the early- 1990s, Helle, along with other members of the Estonian-

Canadian dental community of Toronto, made multiple trips to Estonia, taking with them dental supplies and leading instructional seminars while there, with the aim of helping to modernize the Estonian dental profession. Helle had many interests; she was an avid skier, loved travel, became an expert knitter in her later years, and she particularly loved spending summers with her family at their Georgian Bay island cottage. She loved to entertain and her culinary skills were legendary amongst her friends. Helle retired from dentistry in 2008, following which she and Brian moved to Niagaraon- the-Lake, where they made many new friends and enjoyed the community. In the last several years, Helle's health deteriorated somewhat, limiting her mobility, but being as determined as she was, she faced these challenges head-on.

A celebration of Helle's life will take place for family and friends prior to the end of the year - date and details to be announced. In lieu of flowers, donations in Helle's name may be made to The Estonian Foundation of Canada, The Kidney Foundation of Canada and The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

Arrangements entrusted to Morgan Funeral Home, 415 Regent St., Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON. Memories, photos and condolences may be shared at http://www.morganfuneral.com

DR. CICELY WILSON April 3, 1926 November 3, 2019

In her 94th year passed away peacefully. Predeceased by Art Wilson, and her sister, Myra. Loving mother of Janet, Helen and David, cherished mother-inlaw to Fernand, Michie, Paul, and Joanna, and proud grandmother of Amanda, Lucas, Marlow, Martine, Hilarie, Jesse, Amanda, Kathleen and Kayla. Great grandmother to Henry, Evan, James and Shea.

A strong, determined, yet elegant woman, Cicely was a pioneer. Born in London, England, she received her veterinary training at the Royal Veterinary College as the Second World War raged. After leaving war-torn England, she became the first woman veterinarian in western Canada. She quietly faced any barriers by proving she could do the job better than any man. Her plans to return to England changed when she met the debonair and charming Arthur. She was finally swept off her feet when Art proposed at the farm and confirmed his belief in the family. She opened her own clinic in Richmond Hill beside the church where she married Art, followed by three decades of practice at the renowned Secord Animal Hospital and at St. Clair Animal Hospital in Toronto.

Cicely's dedication, discipline and patience inspired her family to be creative and hard working. Cicely was so very proud that her daughter Helen and her granddaughter Kathleen both followed in her footsteps - three generations of female veterinarians.

Cicely and Art enjoyed an active 54 year marriage with a rich network of friends, and dancing, music, laughter and always a 5 o'clock vodka and scotch. They were never far from a tennis court and a golf course. Tennis for Cicely was a passion. She was on many inter-county teams, and played into her 80s. Her drop shot was wicked. She always said that her lifelong friends were made through tennis. She golfed to be with Art, but was talented enough to become the Senior Ladies Champion at Donalda Golf Club.

Like her golf shot, Cicely was straight as an arrow. She was ever fair, direct, independent, and intelligent. Yet she was curious with a broad world view and a good sense of humour. The family skied enthusiastically during the winter and treasured the annual family reunion each summer in Muskoka. She became our family matriarch after Art passed away.

In her later years, she enjoyed the warmth of the Arizona sun during winters and her passion became bridge. She proudly played five days a week in her Dunfield home with her bridge friends.

Mum always said getting old is not for sissies. Too true. The Dunfield residents and staff always treated Dr. Wilson with kindness, patience and respect. Florie Coish welcomed her to the Dunfield and Lawrence was a true friend to the end. A huge thank you to Jean, Yvonne, Malou, Gladys, Lemelyn, Grace, Luci, Clara and Eden for their loving care of Mum in her last days. The responsiveness of Dr. Amos and the Temmy Latner palliative team made it possible for mum to stay in her home for this last journey. Thank you all, from the bottom of our hearts.

In celebration of Cicely's life, please join us on Saturday, November 16, 2019, 2:30 to 5:30 p.m. at the Dunfield Retirement Residence, second floor, 77 Dunfield Ave., Toronto. In lieu of flowers, a contribution to the Ontario or Toronto Humane Society would be gratefully appreciated.

TONY YUKSEEN YAU March 13 1938 November 1, 2019

Our heavy hearts announce his sudden death. Brilliant PhD chemical engineer and the innovator of the deinking process for recycled paper. Loving husband of Cecilia (Heung) for 53 years, adoring and proud father of Deirdre and her husband Richard, and special playmate and cuddler to grandchildren Evan and Camilla. Forever loved and missed.

In lieu of flowers, please consider a memorial donation to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Visitation: Saturday November 16, 2019 from 9:30 a.m. - 10:30 a.m.

Holy Cross Catholic Funeral Home. Funeral service: Saturday November 16, 2019 at 10:45 a.m. Chapel of St. Joseph - Holy Cross Catholic Funeral Home.

ERIC BLITSTEIN Februrary 21, 1952 November 12, 2009 210th Yahrzeit

Forever in our hearts, Mom, Paula, Chana, Nina and your 13 grandchildren. Jonathan, Adam, cousins, friends, Future Electronic colleagues & LCC classmates.

JOHN SELTZER Born London, England March 17, 1927 - Died Toronto, Ontario November 10, 1993 Freeman of the city of London Sadly missed, lovingly remembered


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Death at Howse Peak How three climbers perished on an Alberta mountain
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A trio of world-class alpinists, Jess Roskelley, Hansjorg Auer and David Lama, died in an avalanche during a descent from one of Canada's most dangerous mountaintops in April. Marty Klinkenberg travelled to Banff National Park and Spokane, Wash., to piece together the untold story of their fateful climb
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By MARTY KLINKENBERG
  
  

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Saturday, November 2, 2019 – Page S1

uentin Roberts and Jasmin Fauteux woke up in Banff National Park on April 16 with hopes of climbing a rugged peak along the Icefields Parkway.

When they discovered the next morning that 10 centimetres of snow had fallen, they reconsidered.

"There was a lot of snow and that was already a concern," Roberts says. "More snow made everything more dangerous."

Two years earlier, he was trapped in an avalanche while climbing a frozen waterfall. Torrents of snow pounded down as he clung to a rope. It filled his hood and jacket and poured into his pants. He and his climbing partner escaped, badly shaken.

"I made a really stupid mistake," Roberts, 26, says.

He and Fauteux abandoned their plans. They skied four hours back to their car and headed toward Canmore, Alta., the town in the Rocky Mountains where Roberts lives.

A few minutes later, Howse Peak came into view. The mountain rises more than three kilometres as it straddles the continental divide between Alberta and British Columbia in a remote corner of Banff National Park.

Although Howse Peak is little known beyond the climbing world, adventurers regard it as one of Canada's most inhospitable and unassailable mountains. It looks unapproachable from the Icefields Parkway, like a quilt nature patched together from diabolical elements.

It has a sheer, 1,300-metre-tall striated grey wall, and unsteady rocks as sharp as razor blades. In winter, there is deep snow and a glacier to traverse. Hundreds of cornices hang from ledges all over its upper reaches. Shards of ice cling to cliffs. Along its sides, skinny remnants of avalanches look like fingers that clawed their way down.

Roberts and Fauteux stopped. "The sun had just come out and it looked beautiful," Roberts says.

As they watched, a cornice, a large, dense mass of snow, broke off from a ridge below the summit and triggered an avalanche. Roberts snapped pictures with his phone. "It looked like the whole mountain was falling apart," he says.

From where he stood three kilometres away, he had no idea anyone was on Howse Peak.

Jess Roskelley, Hansjorg Auer and David Lama had begun their ascent before dawn.

Early in the afternoon, three of the world's most accomplished mountaineers became only the second group of climbers to reach the 3,295-metre summit in winter. Shortly after that, they started to make their way down.

The next day, the members of the North Face's elite Global Athlete Team were declared missing. When Roberts heard, it felt like a punch in the gut. "I had an inkling that what I had watched was connected to it," he says. "It was very eerie."

He told friends. They urged him to contact authorities. He provided information that helped document a disaster that shocked climbers around the world.

"I somehow got lucky," Roberts says.

"Those guys didn't."

'A DIFFERENT STRATOSPHERE' n the week before they climbed Howse Peak, Roskel* ley, Auer and Lama tuned up by completing a difficult iceclimb on Mount Andromeda, a 3,450metre peak along the boundary of Banff and Jasper national parks.

They went to a climbing-club meeting in Canmore, where they heard Geoff Powter, an author and clinical psychologist, talk about risk.

Powter, who has climbed for 46 years, said that he attended 15 funerals during his first 10 years of mountaineering.

"I understand risk to be an intricate part," he says. "It is not the purpose of the climb, but a measure that establishes how challenging one is." Powter scaled Howse in 1995.

"It is full of mystery and from pure aesthetics, it is difficult not to look up and say, 'Oh my God,' " Powter, 62, says. "When you realize it has only been done by a relative few, that elevates it into a different stratosphere. It is a completion of a lifetime."

Howse Peak checks all the boxes for thrill-seeking climbers. Difficult. Dangerous. Rarely conquered. Canada has probably a dozen dangerous peaks that attract mountain climbers. But there is little adventure left with them anymore, having been scaled innumerable times. And by comparison, Mount Everest, at more than 8,000 metres, has been scaled successfully more than 4,000 times, including a few successful attempts in the winter.

Howse Peak, however, is in rarefied air.

Records show that Howse Peak was climbed in 1902 for the first time. After that, there is no evidence of an attempt for 65 years. In all, probably only a few dozen people have successfully reached the top.

Those who do nearly always climb in summer and take a more moderate approach up the northeast buttress, the line that separates the east and north faces.

A sporting climb won't satisfy the best.

They need one that stirs the soul.

"The whole notion of rendering the impossible possible and the untenable tenable is very alluring," Sharon Wood says.

In 1986, the Canmore mountain guide became the first North American woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest.

Four years later, she and a partner climbed Howse Peak in summer. They ascended the northeast buttress.

"You climb it with a hope and a prayer," Wood says, sitting on the deck of her home and surveying a backyard as rich as an English garden. "All of your senses are flared.

You listen to the sound of the rock under your feet and beneath your palms.

"It is a big, messy problem to solve."

"I hear people say you can do it when conditions are right, but I disagree. It is never safe," says Will Gadd, who with two partners was the first to reach the summit in the winter, in December, 2002. The climb took two days over a route he named Howse of Cards.

"It is a dangerous face. The environment interacts in ways you can't control."

At 52, the Canmore resident is one of the world's greatest adventurers. He is a fourtime national sport-climbing champion and twice set world records for paragliding, the second time flying for 423 kilometres.

As with Roskelley, Auer and Lama, he is an alpine climber. Alpinists seek the most challenging or highest mountains and engage them as lightly and quickly as they can. They use almost no safety gear.

"It's like the stock market," Gadd says.

"Everybody thinks they know the secret to success. There is one difference. You lose your fortune in the stock market. You lose your life alpine climbing."

Powter met the North Face climbers at the lecture, but talked mostly with Auer.

The Austrian famous for daring solo ascents asked him what he thought about his group's coming attempt at Howse Peak. "I told him I knew they were elite climbers, that they were well prepared and would make the right choices," Powter says.

In the immediate aftermath, he wondered if they had made a poor decision. He decided they hadn't. "You can do everything right and things can still go wrong," Powter says. "It is not out of line in our sport for someone to die."

A SECRET ROUTE s far as everyone knew, Roskel" ley, Auer and Lama set out to duplicate a winter climb only one other group had achieved.

The fact that they did something different, something that would enthrall climbers, was a secret that nearly died with them.

Photographs recovered from their phones and cameras show them beginning to ascend Howse Peak's soaring east face at 5:49 a.m. It was windy and snowing lightly, and very cold, between -5 C and -15 C. As much as 50 centimetres of snow had fallen in the preceding week.

They began by following a route called M16 that Barry Blanchard and two partners established in March of 1999. It brought Blanchard's party to within a hair of the summit, but not to the top because its path was blocked.

Blanchard, a Canmore guide, nearly died on the way down when struck by a mushroom-shaped cloud of snow. By luck, the impact thrust him backward rather than over a ledge and into a fatal fall. "It broke my right leg, but saved my life," Blanchard says. "If I was standing one foot to the right, I would have gotten scraped off the wall."

In 1999, Blanchard and his companions spent five days on Howse Peak, including three in snow caves during a winter storm.

The climb was so gruelling that Blanchard lost 15 pounds. After he was injured, he rappelled - with a fracture - 300 metres to where a helicopter pilot could rescue him.

"Getting on the side of an alpine mountain is dangerous by definition," Blanchard says. "It is a fine kind of madness."

He named the route M16 because he and his partners felt like they were under the gun the entire time. Nobody tried M16 again until that mid-April morning.

Roskelley, Auer and Lama started out on the route, but abandoned it two hours in.

Perusing the face, they found a more efficient path. After making a jog to the left, they were able to clamber up a thin line that nobody had ever dared try. It gave them access to the upper reaches of a massive waterfall, which they free-climbed for 12 storeys.

From there, they were only about 300 metres from the summit with a deep ridge of snow between. It took them 90 minutes to wade through it. They climbed from bottom to top in less than seven hours and then stopped to pose for a picture.

If it weren't for photographs, their accomplishment and deaths would have remained a mystery. It took months of sleuthing by John Roskelley, the climber's father, and Grant Statham, a visitor-safety expert in Banff, Yoho and Kootenay National Parks.

For the first time, Statham used time stamps and location data from photos to reconstruct a climb.

"As the pieces came together, it blew my mind," Statham says. "I knew I was sitting on top of an international-climbing story.

The route they took was incredibly exciting, and the short time it took them is mind-bending.

"They lived up to their reputation."

In a picture on the summit at 12:44 p.m., Roskelley beams beside Auer and Lama.

"You can see the joy in his eyes," Statham says. "The guy was living his dream."

'THESE GUYS ARE BEASTS' ess Roskelley was 9 pounds 14 ounces at birth and only a day + or two old when his parents strapped him into a car seat and headed for a climbing adventure in the Grand Tetons.

His dad, John, was the most prolific U.S.

mountaineer of his time. Sir Edmund Hillary dined with the Roskelleys at their home in Spokane, Wash., when Jess was young.

As a teenager, he began to climb in the Pacific Northwest and by 18 was working as a mountain guide. In 2003, at the age of 20, he became the youngest person to reach the summit of Mount Everest. He accomplished the feat with his dad.

"I took him on a number of adventures I

probably shouldn't have," John says.

Jess wanted to be a Navy Seal, but his love for mountaineering won out. He had numerous tattoos, including words ascribed to British explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton on his chest: "Fortitudine Vincimus."

Translation: "Through endurance, we conquer."

At 6 feet and 165 pounds, he was skinny as a rail. He made first ascents across South America, Asia, Alaska and the Canadian Rockies, and in the summer of 2018 climbed two 6,000-metre peaks in Pakistan. Men's Journal chose him one of the most adventurous people in the world that year. At 36, his rising profile led to an invitation to join fellow North Face climbers Auer and Lama at Howse Peak.

Auer, 35, was the first person to freeclimb Italy's Marmolada Peak via the south face in 2007. A decade later, he made three huge climbs in the Dolomite Mountain Range in northwest Italy - and connected each by paragliding between them.

Lama, 28, was the son of a mountain guide from Nepal and an Austrian nurse.

In 2012, he became the first to free-climb Cerro Torre, one of the most striking peaks in the Andes. In 2018, he reached the summit of Lunag Ri, a 6,895-metre peak in the Himalayas.

In the days before the trio began the ascent of Howse Peak, Jess called his father.

By then, the three had already scaled the ice on Mount Andromeda. Jess was thrilled. "Dad, these guys are beasts," he told John. "They run right up this stuff."

Jess had a white English bulldog named Mugs, named after Mugs Stump, a U.S. rock climber who died when he fell into a crevasse while climbing Denali. He laughed at stupid jokes, enjoyed dressing up his dog and could fart on command.

"He gave all of us unspoken permission to be in touch with our inner child," says Ben Erdmann, a climbing buddy.

Jess and Ben spent weeks on expeditions. To entertain one another, they spoke only in exaggerated Scottish accents.

The middle child, Jess was bracketed by older sister Dawn and kid sister Jordan.

Jordan is a neat freak, so to irritate her Jess tore her freshly made bed apart and mangled her perfectly rolled and clipped toothpaste tubes.

He was away at college in Montana when Jordan turned 13, but had roses delivered to her at middle school. As they got older, they met for long runs and climbed Mount Rainier and Mount Hood together.

"Jess was my rock and my protector," Jordan, 30, says. "Whenever I was screwing up, he was the only one that could steer my stubborn ass back to the right path."

When she was young, her father would leave for months on climbing expeditions, but always returned.

"I didn't understand the risk of dying," she says. "Finally, when I was 18 or 19, I got it and would tell Jess, 'Don't screw up.' " They talked about the possibility that he could leave on a climbing trip and not come back. "He told me, 'If something happens, take care of Mom and Dad,' " Jordan says. "He didn't want anybody to mourn."

Six years ago, she set her brother up on a blind date with a friend of a friend. They met in Spokane at a wine bar. The first words out of Jess's mouth were, "Wow! You are way prettier in person!"

Eight months later, they were engaged.

"I fell in love with him the first day we met," Allison Roskelley, 32, says. "His humour and authenticity drew me in."

Months before he left to climb Howse Peak, Jess signed a sponsorship contract with the North Face, which in 1992 established a team of adventurers and the best extreme-sports athletes. He could finally give up a part-time job as a welder and spend more time with Allison. They talked about a starting a family.

On April 15, Jess sent her a text message from the campsite at the base of Howse Peak. He promised to send an update the next day.

MISSING merica's greatest alpinist, John Roskelley, climbed Howse "Peak in 1971 with a friend. They ascended the mountain named after a Hudson Bay fur trader after hiking 25 kilometres down a river. "I did it once," Roskelley, 70, says. "Once is enough."

In recent years, as he drove past, he would scrutinize its face. "I almost felt intimidation coming from it," he says.

Early in the morning on April 17, John called an RCMP dispatch centre in Alberta.

He explained that his son Jess had not checked in with him or Allison the night before. In turn, the Mounties contacted visitor-safety officials in Banff National Park.

"I didn't think anything major had happened," John says. "Getting stranded on a difficult route is not unusual."

At 9:50 a.m., Paul Maloney, a pilot with Alpine Helicopters, was notified the three climbers were missing. He flew a Bell 407 out of the heliport in Canmore and stopped to pick up search-and-rescue teams in Banff and Lake Louise.

They arrived at Howse Peak at 11 a.m., and found the mountaineers' tent pitched in the snow near the base. "There was no indication that anything bad had happened," Maloney says. "We get a lot of these calls and more often than not everything turns out all right."

It was snowing and visibility was limited. Fog and clouds obscured the summit.

Maloney flew as close to the mountain as he dared. "It was a white, white world," he says. "In conditions like that it is easy to lose your reference point. I was concerned I could get vertigo."

He flew along the face and worked down in intervals of a few hundred feet. In a scarce window of visibility, he saw a large pile-up of snow at the bottom of the slope.

Then, a safety officer with Parks Canada made out a dark spot. Maloney was unable to set down, but made four or five passes over. Downwash from the blades exposed the toe of a boot.

"We knew there was one fatality," Maloney says.

Conditions were so poor that it was impossible to retrieve the body.

Maloney saved the GPS co-ordinates.

The search team filled orange highway cones with rocks and dropped them from the helicopter to pinpoint the location.

Two avalanche beacons were placed in Ziploc bags and dropped to the ground. The devices use radio signals to help find the buried. None of the climbers carried one.

Weather forced the team to turn back.

Statham called John Roskelley and told him one climber was dead. "We still had reason to hope one or two survived," Roskelley says. "All three had climbed much more difficult peaks in much worse conditions."

LULLED INTO COMPLACENCY ccording to data collected by Avalanche Canada, an average "of 11 people a year have been killed in a barrage of snow and ice in each of the past 10 years. That is the lowest figure since the mid-1990s - and remarkable considering the exponential increase in winter backcountry use over the past couple of decades.

Howse: Mountaineers' daring feat was almost forgotten in the snow Over a reporting period from Oct. 31, 2018, until Sept. 30, 2019, there were a dozen avalanche fatalities in Alberta and British Columbia. Victims include ice and mountain climbers, backcountry skiers, snowmobilers and snow-shoers.

"[Avalanches] aren't discerning of who they strike," says Lawrence White, the executive director of Alpine Canada.

Although an avalanche can occur any time, December through April is the peak season. Spring is especially dangerous because ice and snow becomes unstable as temperatures rise. Think about it like this: When the temperature is low, snow sticks to the roof and windshield of your car.

When the temperature warms, snow slides down, often in pieces. Something similar occurs on mountains.

More than 5.1 million people visited Alberta and British Columbia's national parks between April 1, 2018, and March 31, 2019. Banff is Canada's most popular, with nearly 4.1 million visitors over the same period.

The surroundings are so spectacular that it is easy to be lulled into complacency. Because of that, the parks service has created programs to educate visitors about the risk. Daily avalanche forecasts are posted from November on. Information includes an overview of the region's avalanche conditions, recent avalanche activity and an outlook of how the snowpack can react in current and coming weather.

Elite climbers understand. "Snow is the most complicated medium for us to judge," says Barry Blanchard, who has been climbing without ropes or safety equipment since the late 1970s. "It can go from as safe as it gets to as dangerous as it gets in 24 hours."

Will Gadd has made at least a half-dozen attempts to climb Howse Peak and turned back multiple times when he felt conditions were unsafe. "Danger does not add to the thrill of the chase," he says. "It is something you mitigate. There is enough inherent danger that you don't need to add more."

He was raised in Jasper and spent a lot of time in the mountains. He was age 17 when he began to climb in earnest, but the elevated risks associated with alpinism made him uncomfortable. He has come to accept the consequences. "I have gone to a lot of funerals and wakes," he says. "Basically, everybody that taught me to climb is dead."

The avalanche risk was unpredictable when the climbers set out on April 16.

Snow from storms the preceding week could unsettle the snow. Wind could push a slab loose and down the mountain. It is impossible to know. "The more complex the environment, the more complex the results," Gadd says. "Big faces are harder to control."

So why do climbers expose themselves to the danger?

"It is while doing these things that they feel most alive," Maloney says. "People say they have a death wish. They don't. They have a life wish."

In his practice, Powter, the psychologist, sees many climbers. He recognizes they flirt with danger and handle it in ways most of us can't. Brain studies show the most elite barely react when confronted with fear. It even sharpens their responses.

"You know the price is high," Sharon Wood says. "It ups the stakes and ups your performance."

Ben Erdmann shared a rope with Jess on climbs across Alaska and stood beside him on summits in Patagonia. He started to climb as a teenager as a way to cope with the trauma caused by his father's suicide.

A few years ago, he stopped climbing.

Three of his friends died, one after the other after the other. "It broke my heart," says Erdmann, who lives in Leavenworth, Wash., a mountain town with a Bavarian theme four hours south of Penticton, B.C.

"I tried to climb after that, but I lost my drive."

Before he quit, he and Jess talked about climbing Howse Peak. "I feel like I am living a second life right now," he says. "If I hadn't stepped away, I would have been on the rope with Jess and Hans and David."

HOPE FOR A RESCUE fter an early conference call on "April 18 to discuss what they hoped would be a rescue, Maloney flew the team back to Howse Peak. As they scanned the endless mountains, they realized the biggest avalanche cycle of the season had just occurred.

When they arrived at Howse Peak, wind and snow were so relentless that he was unable to set the helicopter down. Maloney found a safer spot a half-kilometre away. From there, the search team watched avalanches tumble down. They would have no more than 25 seconds at a time to search before needing to be lifted out.

At the same time, another fierce storm was bearing down. The forecast called for 40 more centimetres of snow. Again, the search was called off.

On April 19, as the storm raged, the team deliberated how to proceed once the weather cleared.

Searchers are trained to hang beneath a helicopter on a sling and unclip themselves before they start to look. The avalanche risk made that impossible. "There was a lot of conversation among us," Grant Statham says. "If we couldn't do it that way, how could we go in there?" As luck would have it, Brian Webster, the team's safety manager, had attended a presentation about a new technique being used in Switzerland. It requires searchers to fly beneath the helicopter and remain attached as they probe in the snow.

That night, the team watched a how-to video and got ready to try it at Howse Peak.

The next morning, for the first time in days, the weather was beautiful, sunny with blue skies. Maloney swept up and down the face.

"There wasn't a whole lot of optimism, but we wanted to eliminate the possibility that somebody was clinging to the side," he says. "There are tremendous survival stories."

He returned to where the boot was seen sticking out of the snow, but the spot had been covered by multiple avalanches. Maloney used the GPS co-ordinates he had saved and touched his skids to the ground.

As he did, somebody in the back planted a flag.

He returned to a staging area where searchers were waiting. For 20 minutes, one probed beneath the snow while suspended on a line 120-feet long. Nothing was found.

As searchers considered their next step, they were called to an avalanche 20 kilometres away. They found a backcountry skier with fatal injuries. By the time the recovery was made, it was too late to return to Howse Peak.

The search began anew on April 21. The weather was perfect as the team left Canmore at dawn. "It was what we needed," Maloney says.

Initially, the same ground was covered as the preceding day. In 20-minute intervals, a searcher with a probe worked beneath the helicopter. As they looked, Maloney flew 120-feet overhead and matched them step for step.

"We were still not hitting it," he says.

The parks service placed a call to Adam Sheriff and asked him to bring his avalanche dog, Brooke, to Howse Peak. Sheriff drove two hours from his home in Golden, B.C., and parked along the Icefields Parkway where Maloney picked them up.

He flew Sheriff and Brooke, a 10-yearold German shepherd, to the search site.

Each was clipped to a harness on a 170-foot line. It was longer than the others to keep the helicopter from kicking up snow.

Sheriff, who works as the visitor safety manager at the Kicking Horse Resort in Golden, got Brooke as a puppy for avalanche rescues. Over two years of training, she learned to fly in a harness, ride on snowmobiles and ski lifts, and search for items beneath the snow.

"Her tail wags non-stop when she hears a helicopter," Sheriff says.

Sheriff and Brooke began searching. Just like the others, they came up empty. The team was about to call the operation off, but decided to give Brooke 10 more minutes. "It was probably going to be our last try," Maloney says. "If we weren't successful, there was a likelihood the bodies would not be recovered until the snow melted in summer."

Suddenly and frantically, Brooke focused on one spot and began digging. A foot-and-a-half down, the black dog uncovered one of the climbers. Soon, all three were found within a few metres of each other. Two were tied to the same rappelling

rope. Some of their gear was recovered, as was Jess Roskelley's iPhone.

Jess was taken to a funeral home in Canmore. The Roskelleys, who drove to Canmore the day after the three went missing, visited his body. "I needed to see him," his mother Joyce Roskelley says. "I had been terrified that he had suffocated beneath the snow or that animals had gotten to him."

He had a traumatic injury above his left eye, possibly from being struck by a rock. "I knew he must have died instantly and had not suffered," Joyce says. "It was comforting for me."

SAYING GOODBYE n May 17, a celebration was 0 held in Spokane for Jess Roskelley. The service, held in a theatre, was delayed to accommodate the crowd. For two hours, one person after another rose to eulogize him.

Allison Roskelley's voice shook as she stood at the podium. "Your dream was engrained in your soul," she said. "It is something I never imagined taking away from you. I trusted you were very conservative and calculated in the risks you took. I know your No. 1 priority was to come back home."

The service ended with a series of photos on a video screen above the stage: Jess vacuuming with Mugs in a backpack, Jess wearing bunny ears, Jess wakeboarding naked behind a boat.

The next day, his parents had people to their home overlooking a wildlife conservation area. They live on a flyway for American bitterns, Canada geese and tundra swans. There are bald eagles, elk and otters, too. Off in the distance, one can see the silhouette of Mount Spokane.

In a quiet moment, Joyce sat at the dining room table and talked about the hardships endured by the spouses of mountaineers.

She and John have been married for nearly a half-century.

When he went on an expedition, she would get letters every three to six weeks.

Sometimes a stack of 10 would arrive and she would read them in chronological order.

"Just because you got a stack, there was no guarantee that he was alive," she says.

"Every time he left, he would say goodbye.

While he chose not to die, we both accepted the responsibility."

MAKING SENSE OF A TRAGEDY ohn Roskelley visited Howse + Peak three times to retrace his son's steps.

At the end of May, he found the tent the climbers shared at the base of the mountain the night before they set out.

Combing through snow, he also recovered sleeping bags, skis, a bit of clothing, gloves and ice tools. On a glacier he found Jess's inReach GPS texting device.

He returned on July 2 with Tim Sanford, the high-school buddy with whom Jess had begun rock climbing. More clothing was found, as well as a camera and ice tool belonging to Auer and Lama's GoPro video recorder.

In late July, Jordan Roskelley joined her father on the mountain that took her brother's life. They spent hours bushwhacking their way in and scrambling over rocks and boulders until they reached the base. "Seeing it from a helicopter or from the road doesn't serve it justice," Jordan says. "It is so much bigger than you possibly could imagine. It was such an immense fall."

She and her father found a coat, ropes, batteries from headlamps, crampon parts, ski poles and more skis. "There were a lot of helmet parts," John says. "Their helmets got busted up pretty badly."

He used photos recovered to track the climb. Their ascent began at 5:49 a.m. A picture taken at 9:57 a.m. shows Lama struggling up a steep ridge. At 12:44 p.m., they are on the summit. In the last photo taken, at 1:27 p.m., they had begun to rappel.

Sometime shortly after that, John Roskelley believes a cornice broke off from a precipice and thundered down on top of them.

"They just got hit by this thing," he says.

"There had to be tremendous force."

In July, the North Face invited the families of all three to Austria for a memorial service. "We got to know the other parents, and did some hiking and biking with them," he says. "It was a good get-together."

He was drawn to Alberta after the accident in an attempt to make sense of the tragedy. He is stoic from decades of scaling dangerous peaks. He has recreated all but about 30 seconds of the climb.

"I am used to going to celebrations and memorials for climbers," he says. "Death happens, and that is the way it is."

His voice trails off.

Eventually, Allison Roskelley will visit Howse Peak.

She was a rodeo queen in high school, so in May, 2015, Jess took her to one in Winthrop, Wash., and proposed in the centre of the arena on bended knee. Two months later, they were married in a climbing area north of Spokane. They went on a minihoneymoon to Montana and camped beneath limestone walls in the wilderness.

They fished on the Yellowstone River with his friend, Sanford, serving as their guide.

Jess and Tim taught Allison to fly-cast and she reeled in a brown trout the first day.

From the moment they met, the couple's shared love for angling solidified their bond. His grandfather, Fenton, was an outdoors writer. Allison was raised in Idaho stalking steelhead trout with her granddad.

In their last trip together, a month before Jess died, they went deep-sea fishing in Costa Rica. They dined at sunset on the beach on ceviche prepared from the tuna they caught.

She still listens to voicemails that he left. At times, she pauses outside their home and dreads going in. Without him, it seems empty. She misses his flatulence, smile and silly jokes, and how he chased her down the driveway, half-naked, to sneak in one more kiss as she left for work.

She struggles most with how she imagines the accident. The avalanche starting.

Jess realizing what was happening. How scared he was. What was going through his head about her, Mugs, his family.

"It's not fair and it will never be fair," she says. "I planned to spend the rest of my life with him."

In reality, he spent the rest of his life with her.

She has not felt ready yet, but one day she will drive to Banff National Park, where they spent weekends in a pop-up camper. Howse Peak will rise before her and she will gaze up its towering face. She took a mountaineering course a few years ago to better understand what he did.

"I know I will feel his spirit and be engulfed by him," Allison says.

He said goodbye each time he left on a climb. "I accepted that this could happen," she says. "It doesn't mean it isn't hard every day, but I am owning it. I can move forward living and honour him."

In a funeral home in Canmore, she held his hand one last time.

PHOTOGR APHY BY TODD KOROL

'I somehow got lucky ... those guys didn't'QUENTIN ROBERTS, WHO WITNESSED THE AVALANCHE THAT KILLED THREE OF THE WORLD'S MOST ACCOMPLISHED MOUNTAINEERS

'It is a fine kind of madness'BARRY BLANCHARD, THE CLIMBER WHO ESTABLISHED THE ROUTE ON HOWSE PEAK THAT ROSKELLEY, AUER AND LAMA FOLLOWED, KNOWS ALL ABOUT THE DANGERS OF ALPINE CLIMBING

'You climb it with a hope and a prayer.' SHARON WOOD, THE FIRST NORTH AMERICAN WOMAN TO CLIMB MOUNT EVEREST, TALKS ABOUT HER EXPERIENCE CLIMBING HOWSE PEAK

BROOKE AND ADAM SHERIFF TOOK PART IN THE SEARCH FOR THE CLIMBERS. BROOKE IS A GERMAN SHEPHERD TRAINED FOR AVALANCHE RESCUES

'I hear people say you can do it when conditions are right, but I disagree. It is never safe' WILL GADD, WHO, ALONG WITH TWO PARTNERS, WAS THE FIRST TO REACH THE SUMMIT IN THE WINTER, IN DECEMBER, 2002

'I almost felt intimidation coming from it' JOHN ROSKELLEY, JESS'S FATHER, IS STILL IN AWE ABOUT HOWSE PEAK, WHICH HE CLIMBED IN 1971

'People say they have a death wish. They don't. They have a life wish' PAUL MALONEY, THE HELICOPTER PILOT WHO FLEW THE SEARCH MISSION

THE THREE CLIMBERS: JESS ROSKELLEY, HANSJORG AUER AND DAVID LAMA

Tuesday, November 05, 2019
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Friday, November 8, 2019 – Page B21

DEATHS MARY LOUISA BEATTIE, CAIB Peacefully, on Monday November 4 2019, age 65, in Markham, ON, after a brief but courageous battle with cancer. Predeceased by parents, Elizabeth (Beth) Agnes Mary (nee Tremayne) and Allan Leslie Beattie.

Greatly mourned by husband, Tony D'Ambrosio; children, Heather and Mark Plath; and sisters, Elizabeth (James Greenshields), Barbara (Frank Aiello) and Leslie (David Prescott). Ex-wife of Harold Plath. Beloved aunt to Daniel (Emily), Victoria (Mario LaValle) and William Aiello, and Ian and Eric Prescott. Devoted stepmother to Daniel D'Ambrosio (Kimberly), Sarah D'Ambrosio (Christopher Bekiaris), and Nicole Beverley (Kyle), and proud Nana to Lukas, Owen, Charlotte, and Leo. Fondly remembered by many cousins and other members of her extended family.

Mary graduated in 1973 from Brock High School in Cannington, ON, and went on to have a successful career in the insurance business. She retired in 2014 after 28 years with Thomas I Hull Insurance Ltd., having risen to the position of Vice President.

Mary enjoyed nothing better than being at the cottage with family and friends. Fond memories of campfires under the stars will always be treasured.

Heartfelt thanks to all the dedicated and compassionate staff who cared for both Mary and her family caregivers in the Southlake Regional Health Centre and Markham Stouffville Hospital, especially Doctors Trinkaus and Dai, and the nurses in the Palliative Care Units of both hospitals.

Celebration of life on Sunday, November 10, 4:30 p.m., at Chapel Ridge Funeral Home, 8911 Woodbine Ave., Markham, ON. Private burial to take place at a future date.

In lieu of flowers, please consider donating to the Canadian Cancer Society, The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), or another charity of your choice.

PAUL ANTHONY FLAHERTY On November 6, 2019, Paul Anthony Flaherty, in his 63rd year, peacefully passed away at his home in Whitehorse, Yukon.

Paul was a loving husband, father, grandfather, son, brother, uncle, friend and mentor to many.

Paul was born in Toronto on January 12, 1957, the eldest of 6, to Christine and Bernard Flaherty, and is survived by his wife Helen of 41 years, children: Michael, Ryan, Courtney and granddaughter Lily, Jaclyn and Jessen, and Craig.

After graduating from the University of Western Ontario in London, Paul's career with Bell Canada carried him across Ontario and Quebec and ultimately to Whitehorse as the President and CEO of Northwestel for the last 18 years.

Paul always encouraged the pursuit of education at all levels and the healthy competition found in sport. These interests culminated into his roles as the Chair of the Board of Governors at Yukon College for six years and the Canada Games Board of Directors for eleven years.

Paul also had an extreme love for the north and discovered it thoroughly by foot, raft, canoe, snowmobile, air and dogsled.

In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to the Paul Flaherty Bursary at Yukon College, Maryhouse or the Whitehorse Food Bank.

Visitation will be held at Heritage North Funeral Home, 412 Cook St., Whitehorse, YT, on Friday, November 8th at 2-4 p.m. and 7-9 p.m.

Funeral services will be held at Sacred Heart Cathedral, 406 Steele St., Whitehorse, YT, on Saturday, November 9th that 1 p.m. Reception to follow in the CYO Hall.

Interment will be held in Caledon, Ontario at St. Cornelius Church at a later date.

SHARON ANN FRANCIS (née MacIntyre) On Monday, October 21, 2019, surrounded by the love of her family and caregivers, Sharon Ann Francis passed away peacefully at her residence in Toronto, ON after a long journey with Alzheimer's disease.

Sharon brought light and laughter to the world. She was ever optimistic and a true force of energy. Known for her bright smile and warmth, she had tremendous empathy for others and a unique ability to personally connect with people she met. Sharon lived an adventurous and joyful life with her soulmate and husband of 53 years, Dr. Robert (Bob) Francis.

Sharon was born and raised in Sydney, NS with her large, very close-knit family and met Bob at St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, NS while she was training to be a nurse. Sharon had a passion for helping others which she had the opportunity to do through a lifetime in the medical profession, as a nurse and partner to Bob as they founded Medcan together in 1987.

Medcan focuses on preventative and exceptional patient care, and today, employs over 500 people and is one of the largest medical clinics in North America.

Sharon's family was always at the heart of her universe.

She was a loving daughter and sister, devoted mother of her two children, and adoring and proud grandmother to her six grandchildren. Coming together for frequent large family gatherings with her siblings, Sharon always brought fun and dance.

Sharon is lovingly remembered and survived by her husband, Dr. Robert Francis, her children and their spouses Shaun (Stacy) and Ashli Paige (David Flueck), and grandchildren, R.J., William, Christopher, Elle, Brooke and John. She will be dearly missed by her siblings, Marcella MacPhail (Walter), Mary Cheryl Berry (Roderick), Angus MacIntyre (Mary Evelyn), her large extended family of in-laws, nieces and nephews, and her ever-loyal canine companion, MacDuff. Sharon is predeceased by her parents, John and Chris MacIntyre, and her infant sister, Maureen Dolores.

A private service to honor Sharon was held in Toronto, ON last week. A memorial service to celebrate her life will be held in the near future.

Sharon suffered from Alzheimer's disease; in 2017 Bob founded the Sharon Francis Institute for Regenerative Medicine (SFIRM), a charity that funds innovative research studies in regenerative medicine. Advances in science funded through SFIRM will be an enduring piece of Sharon's legacy.

In lieu of flowers, donations in Sharon's memory can be made at http://www.sfirm.ca.

ROBB WARREN HINDSON C.A.

FEBRUARY 5, 1960 NOVEMBER 2, 2019 Much beloved and admired son of Mary Christine Hindson and Donald C. Hindson, survived by his sister, Donna Leslie and brother in-law Mark Opzoomer, aunts, uncles and many cousins.

Robb was a graduate of Markham District High School, obtained his HBA from the University of Western Ontario and received his C.A. designation under the tutelage of Clarkson Gordon.

Shortly thereafter, he joined the firm of Jones Gable (now Leede Jones Gable Inc.) where he remained for over thirty years as its Chief Financial Officer during which time he earned the respect and admiration and enjoyed the comradery of his partners, business associates and staff. As a proud and committed partner, he continued to offer advice and opinions from his bedside.

What drew him away from work, was the call of the north, his passion for skiing, snowmobiling, boating, cottaging and nature in all its forms. His dedication to nature and preserving the shoreline of Muskoka Lakes in their natural habitat was evidenced by his presidency for several years of the Lake Rosseau North Association and as Treasurer of the Muskoka Lakes Association. He was, for many years, a member of the National Yacht Club where he enjoyed sailing, a member of the Muskoka Lakes Golf and Country Club and Craigleith Ski Club where he was a regular with his dad or mother Saturday mornings and with his ski buddies the remainder of the weekend. In spring and fall, his favourite activity was transplanting trees at his Grey County farm, his property on Lake Rosseau and his treasured island in Temagami. In Toronto, he was actively involved and proud to serve many years as Treasurer for The Duke of Edinburgh's International Award Canada.

His family would like to extend their thanks to Drs. Doherty, Nolan, Lau and the respective teams at Sunnybrook Hospital who enabled him to regain his health for a few months so he could enjoy his friends, family, cottaging, boating and visiting his island in Temagami. They would also like to thank Drs. McLachlin, Prebble and Plume and the nurses at Collingwood General and Marine Hospital and Campbell House who kept him comfortable in his last weeks as well as the countless friends and relatives whose visits both at home and hospitals inspired him to fight on until cancer finally took its toll.

A private family service has been held and a Celebration of Robb's life will be held at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Muskoka Conservancy, 47 Quebec Street, Bracebridge, Ontario P1L 1P8 or to the Collingwood General and Marine Hospital, 459 Hume Street, Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 1W9.

Arrangements entrusted to Fawcett Funeral Home - Collingwood.

EDNA "TED" HOBSON (nee Kirk) Tireless volunteer, former president of ACW (Anglican Church Women), WWII munitions worker, war bride, crossword puzzle enthusiast, NASCAR fan, and general mover and shaker who amazed and ran circles around all those who knew her, passed peacefully with her terrific care team at Orchard Villa Long Term Care in Pickering on Wednesday, November 6, 2019 in her 100th year.

Beloved wife of the late George Earnest 'Ernie.' Cherished daughter of the late Fred Kirk and wife, Marie (nee Whittaker). Loving mother of Stuart Hobson and Daphne FitzGerald (Brian). Nana to Casey FitzGerald (Chris Steers), Kevin FitzGerald (Elizabeth) and Simon FitzGerald. Super-Nana to Thomas FitzGerald and honorary grandmother to countless more.

Ted had a remarkable life filled with good friends, good stories and good cups of tea.

A Celebration of Ted's life will be held on Tuesday, November 19th at two o'clock at Christ Church Deer Park, 1570 Yonge Street (NW corner of Yonge & Heath). In lieu of flowers, donations to Parkinson Canada in memory of her late son-in-law, Brian FitzGerald or The Hospital for Sick Children would be appreciated.

JASON BRIAN HOWE It is with profound sadness that we announce that Jason Brian Howe passed away in Scottsdale Arizona on July 1, 2019, at 47 years of age. Jason was the dear husband of Kimberly and proud father of Spencer and Madison. He is also survived by his grandmother, Alice Howe, Tillsonburg, ON; parents, Brian and Pat Howe, Lake Wales, FL; Dinah and Don Smart, Blenheim, ON; brother, James and Katherine Howe and daughter, Ella, Oakville, ON; mother-in-law, Jo-Anne Ainsworth Welsh, Toronto, ON; father-in-law, Bill Welsh, Ottawa, ON; and sisters-in-law, Kathryn Welsh, Oakville, ON and Kristine Welsh, Unionville, ON.

Jason was born in London, Ontario where he resided through his graduation from Western University before moving to Toronto, Calgary and Scottsdale.

He lived life to the fullest, filled every room with his enthusiasm and was passionate about his family, health and fitness, music and giving back to his community.

Jason will be forever remembered by his aunts, uncles, cousins and friends. May he rest in peace.

JULIA ANN KEELING (née Woodrow) Julia died peacefully on Sunday, October 20, 2019, after a long struggle with cancer. She was born on November 20, 1949, to the late Barbara and Donald Woodrow. She will be greatly missed by many people including her husband, David; her children and their families - Simon, Miche, Nyah and Cora; Jeremy, Willow and Archer; Nicholas and Tracey; Rachel, Steve and Rosalyn - the extended family, and numerous friends and colleagues.

A Service of Thanksgiving for Julia's life will take place on Saturday, November 9 at 1 p.m.

at Grace Church on-the-Hill, 300 Lonsdale Road, Toronto, with a reception following. There will be a Visitation on Friday, November 8 between 7 and 9 p.m. at Humphrey Funeral Home, 1403 Bayview Avenue, Toronto.

In lieu of flowers, please make a donation either to La Leche League Canada, PO Box 147, Pickering, ON L1V 2R2 or to The Kensington Hospice, 38 Major Street, Toronto M5S 2L1.

VANDA KILPEN February 14, 1928 November 5, 2019 It is with deep sorrow we announce the death of Vanda at Meaford General Hospital.

Her partner Ann Cox, her family and friends will greatly miss her Joie De Vivre. Vanda's long and eventful life was characterized by her warmth, laughter and sense of adventure. A celebration of her life will be held at the Marsh Street Centre in Clarksburg on Wednesday, November 13th from 1 until 3 p.m. with refreshments provided. In recognition of the exceptional care provided by Dr. Sauriol and the staff, donations to the Meaford Hospital Foundation would be appreciated and may be made through the Ferguson Funeral Home, 48 Boucher St. E., Meaford, ON N4L 1B9 to whom arrangements have been entrusted.

http://www.fergusonfuneralhomes.ca No need for tears, I am at peace My soul is now at rest There is no pain, I suffer not For with your love, I was blessed MURIEL PATRICIA MACNAUGHTON Our dearest Mom Pat, passed away peacefully surrounded by her family on Tuesday, November 5, 2019, at the age of 98, in Toronto, ON. Predeceased by her loving husband of 49 years, Martin Paul Macnaughton (Mac), she was a loving mother of her children: Jennifer (Bill Stensson), Nancy (Rick Hilborn), Heather (Dave Dunphy), Carol (Russ Martin) and James. Proud grandmother (Grammy) to, Erik (Alexis Shand), Anna, Jane, Brita (Jordy Lacko), Ian (Nathalie Newby), Mackie (Shannon Blackman), Lisa (Tyler Laycock), Cameron, Ashleigh, Nicole, and great-grandmother of Mitchell, and Finley. Predeceased by her close siblings, Florence, Roderick, Phyllis and James, and her British born parents, Tracy Deavin LeMay and Florence Muriel Fereday Paget Mayne.

Pat was an accomplished duplicate bridge player, and did crosswords, suduko, and jumble every day. She loved all animals very much. Growing up, there was always a family dog and she cherished the many years she spent as a volunteer for the Toronto Humane Society. She was also an active member and sadly the last member of the Gordon Road Ladies Group, a ladies social group that was active for over 50 years. Pat was fortunate to spend every summer of her married life at our beloved cottage on Lake Simcoe. Her last visit was for our annual Thanksgiving feast 2019, where she was surrounded by her entire family right down to her great grandkids. She was funny, quirky and smart, embraced life to the very end and will be deeply missed by family and friends. The whole family loved her very much.

Services will be held on Wednesday, November 13th at 11:00 a.m. at St. John's York Mills Anglican Church, 19 Don Ridge Drive, North York, ON M2P 1H3 with lunch following the service. Donations may be made to the Toronto Humane Society at 11 River Street, Toronto, ON M5A 4C2. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

JUNE KATHLEEN MUIR June Kathleen Muir (nee Pinaud) passed away peacefully on November 5, 2019 at age 93 in Toronto, Ontario. June was born on June 9, 1926 to Victor and Kathleen Pinaud in Montreal.

June was predeceased by her son, James Muir (Mary Muir).

She is survived by her children, John Muir, Kathleen Young (Paul Young), Tom Muir (Pat Muir), June Ntazinda (Franco Ntazinda), Jocelyn Saunders (Blair Saunders) and her 10 grandchildren.

June was an avid learner who in her later years enjoyed learning about new technology, medicine and culture. She took great interest in people's lives - in their desires and families. She enjoyed debating politics, being in the outdoors and travelling.

In June's last few years she resided at Belmont House and was treated with great care by all staff. The family greatly appreciates their care and kindness to Mom. If you would like to make a donation in June's memory, please make a donation in her name to Belmont House Foundation or a charity of your choice.

June's interment will be at Mount Pleasant Cemetery attended by family.

THOMAS ARTHUR ROGERS Thomas Arthur Rogers, 82 of Ottawa, Ontario freed peacefully from Parkinson's Disease on Tuesday, November 5, 2019.

Born in Montreal to Muriel and Jack Rogers, Tom attended Bishops College School and later McGill. Tom was a respected member of the Toronto financial community as a technical analyst and later a financial planner. He was active in his church and a baritone in the Timothy Eaton Memorial choir. Tom loved time with his dog, Jiminy, whether it was hiking or occasionally sharing an ice cream cone.

Tom is survived by his son, John Rogers of San Diego, CA; daughter, Laura Gammage, son-in-law, Randy Gammage and grandson, Cole of Ottawa; predeceased by brother, John Victor Rogers of Calgary, Alberta.

His family would like to express their gratitude for the attentive, personalized care Tom received at the Perley and Rideau Veteran's Health Centre (Assisted Living division) and later the Glebe Center (Long Term Care).

A Memorial Service will be held at the Central Chapel of Hulse, Playfair & McGarry, 315 McLeod Street (at O'Connor) on Sunday, November 10 at 4 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please send donations to Parkinson Canada. We will remember Dad when the fall leaves turn, when dogs happily bark and when desserts are served.

Condolences/Tributes/Donations Hulse, Playfair & McGarry http://www.hpmcgarry.ca 613-233-1143 ESTHER MARGARET STEKETEE (nee Scott) Passed away peacefully at her place of residence on Wednesday, November 6, 2019.

She leaves her stepson, Jim (Jo). Lovingly remembered by her step grandchildren Devin (Leanne), Garrett (Lisa) Sabrina (Johnny), Jackson, Jade, Justin and Vanessa. She is the great-grandmother of Tayler, Jaxon, Aiden, Jacob, Noah, Freya and Amelia. She was preceded by her beloved husband Richard, P. Eng and her stepdaughter Kathey loved and remembered by her daughter-in-law, Patricia Steketee, as well as Janice Kantor, Ann and Dave Parker, Sue and Jack Ward, Tennis Reynolds, her relatives and many friends.

Esther was a graduate of Victoria University and received her Master's Degree at the University of Niagara.

After graduation she was employed by the T. Eaton Company; worked in the executives offices add-on various merchandising areas.

As a result of this experience, Esther later owned and operated a boutique in Niagara on the Lake. In 1961 she entered the teaching profession and spent 13 years as an instructor and Director of Business Education Departments in a variety of locations surrounding the city of Toronto, the Niagara Peninsula, including secondment to the University of Toronto.

Esther was co-author and author of business textbooks, education consultant for a television program on business procedures, served on curriculum committees and conducted workshops on teaching methodology. As the result of Esther's contribution to business education, in 1979 she received the Robert Hillmer Award, an award given each year for an outstanding contribution to business education in the province of Ontario.

Esther was known for her sincere, caring personality, and throughout her career assisted physically and emotionally handicapped children and their pursuit of meaningful and independent lives.

Esther was a member of the Boulevard Club, Burlington and Thornhill Golf and Country. Although time and opportunities were limited, Esther's leisure time included piloting an airplane and skydiving.

Private cremations and burial have taken place.

Donations to a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

DR. HELLE TUPHOLME (née Solu) B.Sc., DDS 1944 - 2019 Beloved wife, cherished mother and grandmother, Helle passed away peacefully at her home in Niagara-on-the-Lake on October 30, 2019. Helle will forever be remembered by her devoted husband, Brian; her son, Michael and his wife, Meghan; her daughter, Kristi Ellenzweig and her husband, Jonathan Ellenzweig; as well as by her adored grandchildren, Paige and Brooke Tupholme and Heidi and Leo Ellenzweig. Helle also leaves her brothers, Peter Solu of Toronto and Mart Solu of Sarasota, Florida.

Helle was born in Helsinki, Finland to parents Paul and Agnes Solu, who had fled from Estonia to Finland during the late stages of World War II, and who moved shortly thereafter to Sweden.

In the early-1950s, Helle and her parents moved to Canada, settling in Toronto. There, Helle attended Swansea Public School and Humberside Collegiate Institute. She then obtained a B.Sc. degree at the University of Toronto before enrolling in the Faculty of Dentistry, also at the University of Toronto, receiving her DDS degree in 1971. Over the following thirty-seven years, Helle practiced dentistry in Toronto, opening and running several offices where she cared for a large and devoted following of patients.

In addition to her practice, Helle was a part-time faculty member at the University of Toronto's Dental School and served on several committees at the Royal College of Dental Surgeons of Ontario.

In Toronto, Helle and Brian were long-time residents of the Baby Point area where they enjoyed an active social life and where they raised their children, Michael and Kristi. Helle was actively involved in the Estonian Community in Toronto. Notably, in the early1990s, Helle, along with other members of the EstonianCanadian dental community of Toronto, made multiple trips to Estonia, taking with them dental supplies and leading instructional seminars while there, with the aim of helping to modernize the Estonian dental profession. Helle had many interests; she was an avid skier, loved travel, became an expert knitter in her later years, and she particularly loved spending summers with her family at their Georgian Bay island cottage. She loved to entertain and her culinary skills were legendary amongst her friends. Helle retired from dentistry in 2008, following which she and Brian moved to Niagaraon-the-Lake, where they made many new friends and enjoyed the community. In the last several years, Helle's health deteriorated somewhat, limiting her mobility, but being as determined as she was, she faced these challenges head-on.

A celebration of Helle's life will take place for family and friends prior to the end of the year - date and details to be announced.

In lieu of flowers, donations in Helle's name may be made to The Estonian Foundation of Canada, The Kidney Foundation of Canada and The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

Arrangements entrusted to Morgan Funeral Home, 415 Regent St., Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON. Memories, photos and condolences may be shared at http://www.morganfuneral.com DR. CICELY WILSON April 3, 1926 November 3, 2019 In her 94th year passed away peacefully. Predeceased by Art Wilson, and her sister, Myra.

Loving mother of Janet, Helen and David, cherished mother-inlaw to Fernand, Michie, Paul, and Joanna, and proud grandmother of Amanda, Lucas, Marlow, Martine, Hilarie, Jesse, Amanda, Kathleen and Kayla. Great grandmother to Henry, Evan, James and Shea.

A strong, determined, yet elegant woman, Cicely was a pioneer.

Born in London, England, she received her veterinary training at the Royal Veterinary College as the Second World War raged.

After leaving war-torn England, she became the first woman veterinarian in western Canada.

She quietly faced any barriers by proving she could do the job better than any man. Her plans to return to England changed when she met the debonair and charming Arthur. She was finally swept off her feet when Art proposed at the farm and confirmed his belief in the family.

She opened her own clinic in Richmond Hill beside the church where she married Art, followed by three decades of practice at the renowned Secord Animal Hospital and at St. Clair Animal Hospital in Toronto.

Cicely's dedication, discipline and patience inspired her family to be creative and hard working. Cicely was so very proud that her daughter Helen and her granddaughter Kathleen both followed in her footsteps - three generations of female veterinarians.

Cicely and Art enjoyed an active 54 year marriage with a rich network of friends, and dancing, music, laughter and always a 5 o'clock vodka and scotch. They were never far from a tennis court and a golf course. Tennis for Cicely was a passion. She was on many inter-county teams, and played into her 80s. Her drop shot was wicked. She always said that her lifelong friends were made through tennis. She golfed to be with Art, but was talented enough to become the Senior Ladies Champion at Donalda Golf Club.

Like her golf shot, Cicely was straight as an arrow. She was ever fair, direct, independent, and intelligent. Yet she was curious with a broad world view and a good sense of humour. The family skied enthusiastically during the winter and treasured the annual family reunion each summer in Muskoka. She became our family matriarch after Art passed away.

In her later years, she enjoyed the warmth of the Arizona sun during winters and her passion became bridge. She proudly played five days a week in her Dunfield home with her bridge friends.

Mum always said getting old is not for sissies. Too true. The Dunfield residents and staff always treated Dr. Wilson with kindness, patience and respect. Florie Coish welcomed her to the Dunfield and Lawrence was a true friend to the end. A huge thank you to Jean, Yvonne, Malou, Gladys, Lemelyn, Grace, Luci, Clara and Eden for their loving care of Mum in her last days. The responsiveness of Dr. Amos and the Temmy Latner palliative team made it possible for mum to stay in her home for this last journey. Thank you all, from the bottom of our hearts.

In celebration of Cicely's life, please join us on Saturday, November 16, 2019, 2:30 to 5:30 p.m. at the Dunfield Retirement Residence, second floor, 77 Dunfield Ave., Toronto. In lieu of flowers, a contribution to the Ontario or Toronto Humane Society would be gratefully appreciated.


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CANADIANS ARE BEING DRIVEN TO DISTRACTION
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In the past decade, crashes have been rising sharply and cellphones are a major culprit. But getting drivers to put their devices down isn't easy and experts worry penalties aren't enough - attitudes about technology and safety need to change, Oliver Moore writes
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By OLIVER MOORE
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page A12

The triviality of the text messages is what has stuck with Rob Duttchen.

It was Aug. 15, 2009, when the Winnipeg police officer received a call from his mother, Carolee.

His 62-year-old father, Art, had beenhitbyanSUVwhilewalking their husky-cross in suburban Kingman, Ariz., where Art was a Lutheran pastor. The 16-year-old driver had been talking on the phone - after an extended bout of texting with her boyfriend about a sex-related bet the pair was considering - and allowed her oversized vehicle to drift across the road. She hit the dog, Hobo, first, then smashed into Art from behind, sending him flying.

While Art lay critically wounded - bleeding internally, his neck fractured - the girl made several more phone calls and sent numerous texts. About 15 minutes after the crash, she wrote: "i just dont want people feeling bad for me and stuff."

Art died that night, leaving behind Carolee, their four children and a church community full of friends. As for the driver, she had her licence suspended until she turned 18, and a punishment Rob Duttchen describes as essentially "house arrest for two years."

The senselessness of the conversation the girl was having still gets to him. "There was no reason to be driving and texting at the same time," the police sergeant says.

In the wake of his father's death, Sgt. Duttchen made it his mission to draw attention to distracted driving, which has emerged as one of the most dangerous and intractable road-safety issues Canada has ever faced.

After a brief dip, crashes related to distracted driving jumped nearly 20 per cent from 2009 through 2010, according to Transport Canada, and have stayedconsistentlyhigh-averaging nearly 85,000 annually - everyyearsince.InManitobaalone, there were 4,780 collisions related to distraction in 2012. By 2017, that had jumped to 15,403 - an increase of 222 per cent.

Distracted driving is broadly defined as performing any activity that might take your focus off the road - eating, fiddling with the radio, tapping co-ordinates into a GPS device. Particularly deadly is distraction related to a cellphone, which is designed to monopolize our attention. Accordingtoonewidelycitedstudy, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, talking on a handheld phone while driving more than triplestheriskofacollision.Texting increases it six-fold.

While the problem of distracted driving is one that's immune to easy fixes, there are a host of ideas for how to reduce this deadly behaviour and minimize the harm it causes, everything from more punitive enforcement to rethinking how we build cars and roadways. Jay Winsten, whose public-health project at Harvard University aims to combat distracted driving, believes it will take a combination of both technological intervention and a generational shift in behaviour to get it under control. "The evolution of social norms is important, and I think young people can help lead the way on that," he says.

As for Sgt. Duttchen, he is doing his part to change attitudes one driver at a time. If he catches someone using their phone while driving, they automatically get a ticket. But it's different when the driver is using a phone at a red light. Although that's also illegal, Sgt. Duttchen uses those instances to give drivers an uncomfortable warning about the possible outcome of their behaviour.

"I will tell them my father's story and that it's not worth the risk," he says. "Because the issue isn't just you. The issue is all the people around you." The last time we faced a crisis of this magnitude on the roads was two generations ago, with impaired driving.

Although driving drunk was criminalized in Canada in 1969, the practice remained stubbornly widespread. During one fourmonth period in 1977, for instance, Ontario Provincial Police found that more than half the drivers they stopped for traffic violations had been drinking; about 30 per cent of them were charged with alcohol-related offences.

The tide eventually turned, but slowly. There was a 44-percent drop in alcohol-related incidents from 1978 to 1986. Progress was made through a combination of roadside sobriety programs such as RIDE (Reduce Impaired Driving Everywhere), which was launched across Ontario in 1977, tougher penalties and stricter enforcement of the law.

Possibly the biggest factor in getting drunk driving under control, however, was a dramatic change in public attitudes. The advocacy group Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), created in California in 1980 and launched in Canada nine years later, helped put a human face to the issue. Police departments launched shaming campaigns, publishing the names of everyone charged with impaired-driving offences, which helped to further stigmatize the act.

The idea of the designated driver - a concept popularized in large part by Dr. Winsten - was a crucial part of the puzzle. The campaign roped in taxi companies,publictransitorganizations, bars and restaurants, and private individuals to prevent anyone from getting behind the wheel drunk. Dr. Winsten's Harvard Alcohol Project also took its campaign to pop culture, leading to impaired driving being featured in the plot lines of 160 episodes of prime-time TV between 1988 and 1992.

Gradually, public attitudes changed. What was once seen as atrivialcrime,aslongasthedriver got home safely, became more socially unacceptable. But we're notthereyetwithdistracteddriving. "You can comfortably talk publicly with strangers at a party about how, yeah, you're one of the worst offenders around with distracted driving and you've got to change your behaviour," Dr.

Winsten says. "You wouldn't say that any longer around drunk driving."

Until cellphones started to become ubiquitous in the 1990s, Canada's roads were on an improving safety trend - not just owing to a drop in impaired driving, but also thanks to stricter seatbelt laws, graduated licensing requirements and better-engineeredvehicles.Butarecentreport from the Ottawa-based Traffic Injury Research Foundation shows that over the past 17 years, distracted-driving fatalities have made up an increasing proportion of the deaths on our roads.

"In other words, the positive trend among non-distraction-related fatalities is not evident in the trend among distraction-related fatalities," the report states.

Experts began raising concerns about the dangers of mixing cellphones and driving early on. But good data on the risks werehardtocomebyandlegislators were slow to act. In 2003, Newfoundland and Labrador became the first province to enforce a ban on using handheld phones while driving.

Those laws have since spread across the country, but they're difficult to enforce since drivers typically have to be caught in the act of talking or texting behind the wheel. Unlike with impaired driving, you can't simply set up a RIDE-style checkpoint to determine who's been using their phone recently. In the event of a crash, investigators need a warrant to access a driver's phone records, even if an eyewitness confirms the person was using their device.

Charlie Klauer, an associate professor at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute, knows firsthand how common this behaviour is. She sees it in her experiments and watched itsprevalence explode. As part of her work, she outfits vehicles with camerasandsensorstostudydistracted driving in the real world.

Prof. Klauer ran two studies - one from 2003-04 and another from 2006-07. "In the first study, people weren't texting," she says.

"Nobody texted - not a single person. And in the second study, everybody did it."

The psychology of driving is complicated, which is one of the reasons distracted driving is such a difficult behaviour to stamp out.

The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC), for instance, points to surveys that show 95 per cent of drivers acknowledge it's "very risky" to use their phones while driving. Yet, about one-third of drivers admit to doing just that at least once during their last 10 trips.

Itturnsoutthatpeoplearenotoriously bad judges of their own driving skills.

In one study, researchers at the University of Stockholm found that people had "a strong tendency ... to believe themselves to be more skillful and less riskythantheothers." Thisinflated belief in their own skills can intersect with distracted driving indangerousways."Foraportion of drivers, their ability to text message while driving might be one of the characteristics they believe makes them a unique and superior driver," U.S. researchers wrote in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology in 2014.

Experts say this is in part because the people who drive distracted usually don't suffer any fallout. The Traffic Injury Research Foundation released a report in September showing that the perpetrator is not the most likely one to die in a crash. "Unlike alcohol-impaired drivers, distracted drivers more often kill other road users in crashes than kill themselves," the report states.

In fact, distracted drivers might not even be aware they've had a close call - say, cutting off a cyclist or forcing a truck to veer into oncoming traffic - precisely because they're not paying attention.Andiftheydorealizewhat's happened, they might interpret the safe ending as testament to their superior driving skill, instead of a warning to be more mindful.

All this can lead to the conclusion that distracted-driving laws are an excellent measure - for other people.

A common attitude seems to be, "Yeah, great idea - that'll keep all those other people safe.

I'm good as it is," says Ian Pike, director of the BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit. "Because the prevailing attitude is that injury won't happen to them. 'I've done this a million times before and I got away with it, and I will likely continue to get

away with it' - until they don't."

The truth is, people are terrible at multitasking. Rather than juggling two or three actions at once, people are actually dividing their attention, flicking from one thing to the next, often not very effectively.

In a famous experiment from the late 1990s, people were asked to watch a video and count how many times actors in white shirts passed a basketball. In the middle of the video, a woman in a gorilla suit strolls though the action, pausing to beat her chest.

Asked later about the costumed actor, half of the test subjects admittedtheyhadn'tseenthegorilla.

This is a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. When mentally focused on one thing, we can miss something else right in front of us - such as a child chasing a ball in the street or a car nosing unexpectedly out of an alley. This has been seen in driving simulators: people talking on the phone were asked to count fast-food signs out the window and couldn't fulfill that simple request.

Weknowinstinctivelythislack of attention can have lethal results, but because of human overconfidence, many of us believe we can manage the risk. Besides, our phones and the apps installed on them have become so alluring we sometimes feel we can't help ourselves.

Prof. Klauer has seen how quickly people's best intentions can fade. Even though they knew they were being watched, participants in her experiments took just a couple of hours to revert to their old habits. "They're in their own car, in their own environment," she says. "We all have our normal stuff we do when we drive."

Penalties for distracted driving are a patchwork across the country. In New Brunswick, it's a $200 fine for a first offence. In Prince Edward Island, it's as high as $1,275. In Nunavut, which banned texting and driving only this year, there is no penalty at all.

In the face of worsening distracted-driving statistics, a number of jurisdictions have brought in harsher penalties. Some of the toughest are in Manitoba, which last year introduced the country's first automatic three-day licence suspension for anyone caught using an electronic device behind the wheel, with a sevenday suspension for second offence. The stricter regime was accompaniedbyaneducationcampaign encouraging people to put down their phones and for passengers to speak up when drivers break the law. "The point isn't to make life awful for people; the point is to make it really clear that this behaviour has serious consequences," says Manitoba Infrastructure Minister Ron Schuler. A three-day licence suspension might not be much of a deterrentin,say,FloridaorArizona, he adds, but waiting for the bus in the depths of a prairie winter can be "a real cold experience."

Mr. Schuler admits it will take atleastayear,orpossiblyseveral, before they know whether the new approach is working. But earlysignspointedtothedifficulty in changing ingrained behaviour: Barely two months after the new penalties came into effect, police nabbed their first repeat offender.

There's some suggestion, though, that simply increasing penalties doesn't work. If someone is willing to risk a $300 charge, will raising that fine to $600suddenlyactasadeterrent?

It's not clear it will. "If you increase your fines to such a point, your concern always becomes, will police lay the ticket?" adds Graham Miner, director of highway safety in PEI. "I could write you a ticket for $100 for using a cellphone, but if it's $2,000 and it means you're going to lose your licence, will I write that ticket?" In British Columbia, where collisions are up 25 per cent since 2014,Attorney-GeneralDavidEby hasfloatedsomeideasthatmove beyond suspensions and fines.

Lastyear,heproposedtheideaof invalidatingsomeinsurancebenefits for people convicted of distracted driving. This is now done with those convicted of impaired driving, who are considered in breach of their insurance policy and on the hook for lawsuit settlements, medical expenses and vehicle repairs. A spokesman for the minister would only say that the idea is not part of the province's current approach to distracted driving.

Enforcement can go only so far, though. Because enforcement is intermittent and the practice so widespread, the chances of being caught remain slim. So even though penalties will always be part of the solution to distracted driving, other approaches could play a useful role."Distracteddrivingwillchallenge us in ways that traditional road safety interventions have not," says Robyn Robertson, president of the Traffic Injury Research Foundation. "Everyone's looking for the intervention that'll tackle the issue. It's not going to be one thing."

Let's face it: driving can get boring. That idea is central to a new distracted-driving campaign set to launch in April. The effort is being led by Dr. Winsten and his team at Harvard, and it's rooted in the notion that simply asking motorists to keep their eyes on the road isn't enough. They need to be actively engaged and looking around. This reflects the old ruleofthumbthatdriversshould be checking their mirrors every five to seven seconds, a practice not universally followed.

"The campaign will stress that the practice of attentive driving involves more than avoiding distractions or passively gazing at theroadahead;itrequiresactive, systematic engagement in the driving task to maintain 'situational awareness,' " according to a draft description of the campaign. The point isn't just that drivers need to be more aware of impending dangers. It's also about engaging their minds that little bit more, making them less likely to reach for their phones.

Technology might help, too.

Nichole Morris, a research scholar at the Center for Transportation Studies at the University of Minnesota, says her team has studied the effects of forwardcollision warning systems and invehicle messages that alert drivers if they get too close to the car in front of them. The researchers hypothesized these systems would leave drivers more susceptible to distraction. But they found the opposite. "If we can provide some driving-relevant information to increase their mental load, just ever so slightly, you can help eat up some of that additional attention that people feel like they need to do something with," Prof. Morris says. "If it's deployed really thoughtfully and carefully, we can actually load them up just enough so that they don't pick up their phone."

Tech assistance could also come in the form of telematics - a sort of automotive black box that tracks hard braking and other actions that might indicate distraction.Thepayofffordrivers could come in the form of a break on their insuarance rates.

The ICBC ran a telematics pilot last year that showed a 40-percent improvement in driver actions. Another such project, still under way, is geared toward trackingthebehaviourofinexperienced drivers, who the ICBC says are 5.6-times more likely than 20-year veterans to be in a crash. If the insurer sees an uptick in safe driving, it could rollout the system more widely.

A more drastic, even slightly sci-fi form of tech assistance is being planned by Volvo. Starting in 2020, the Swedish automaker will offer optional on-board cameras that monitor drivers' eye movements, watching for signs associated with both impairment and distraction. If a driver closes her eyes or looks away from the road for too long, a Volvo employee would call the vehicle to check in on the driver. In extreme cases, the car would slow itself to a stop.

There are also technological fixes on the smartphone side of things. Newer Apple iPhones, for instance, offer an optional "do not disturb" feature for drivers that blocks notifications while the car is on the move. So far, these features have seen limited uptake by users, and phone makers have resisted automatic notification blockers, arguing the technology isn't perfect and could inconvenience passengers and those using public transit.

Consumers have also pushed back at this concept, too reliant on their smartphones to imagine being disconnected.

Neil Arason, the author of No Accident: Eliminating Injury and Death on Canadian Roads, says tactics to minimize distracted driving are worthwhile, but that a bit of realism is needed as well.

Some drivers will always be willing to risk looking at their phones.Knowingthis,it'sincumbent on society to build a safer road network. That could mean installing median barriers on roads to prevent drivers from driftingintooncominglanes,and using radar speed cameras to slow motorists down and reduce the damage resulting from crashes.

For Todd Litman, head of the Victoria Transport Policy Institute,anindependentresearchorganization, there needs to be a greater focus on giving people alternatives to driving. With fully reliable and ubiquitous autonomous vehicles still years or decades off, the only way to do it, he argues, is to improve public transit options and position it deliberately as the choice for people who want screen time. That way, even if the trip takes longer, the time can be used productively.

"We can shake bigger fingers, we can be louder in our anti-distracted-driving campaigns," Mr.

Litman says. "Or we can be realistic and give travellers solutions that actually respond to their demands."

However, most of these initiatives, whether public-awareness campaigns or changes to driving infrastructure, could take years to have a measurable effect on deaths and injuries due to distracted driving. And if you talk to some of the people most directly affected by the issue, you'll hear tones of weary resignation.

One B.C. man, whose wife was killed by a driver who had been drinking and was texting his exgirlfriendatthetimeofthecrash, is furious that nothing seems to change on the roads - even among his own circle.

"My friends do the same thing, even after [my wife] died and they were at her funeral," says the widower, who is still strugglingwiththefalloutofherdeath and was granted anonymity because he didn't want national media attention. He has even caught himself instinctively grabbing for the phone when a call comes in from the seniors' home where his mother is a resident. "That [phone] buzzer is just like Pavlov's dog," he says. "If people dying won't change your mind, nothing's going to change your mind."

ButinWinnipeg,Sgt.Duttchen hasn't given up hope and he's confident he's making a difference. "If we can change the behaviour of one person at a time, our mission is accomplished," he says. "Because you don't know the compounding effect of that.

You don't know what you've prevented."

Associated Graphic

Jay Winsten, seen above in Boston, Mass., runs a public-health project at Harvard University that aims to combat distracted driving. He says it will take a generational shift in behaviour as well as technological intervention to help tackle the issue.

SCOTT EISENSCOTT EISEN

Sergeant Rob Duttchen holds a photo of his father, Art Duttchen, a Lutheran pastor who was killed in 2009 when a teen driver who was texting crossed a median, like the one seen at top in Toronto, and hit him while he was walking his dog in Kingman, Ariz.

ABOVE: JOHN WOODS/GLOBE AND MAIL; TOP: DEBORAH BAIC/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Sergeant Rob Duttchen, seen left in Winnipeg, says that if he catches a driver texting at a red light, he uses it as an opportunity to give them a warning about the possible consequences of their distracted driving by sharing his father's story.

JOHN WOODS/GLOBE AND MAIL

University of Minnesota research scholar at the Center for Transportation Studies Nichole Morris, centre, says her team found forward-collision warning systems, which alerted drivers when they were too close to cars in front of them, helped to improve driver focus.

MICHAEL MCCARTHY

Tuesday, November 12, 2019
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The cannabis collapse: How Bay Street created the bubble - and walked away
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By MARK RENDELL, TIM KILADZE
  
  

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Saturday, November 2, 2019 – Page B6

T The warning signs were there all summer, but it wasn't until the first business day of September that the reckoning arived for Canadian cannabis companies in need of money.

After markets closed on Sept. 3, Aurora Cannabis Inc., one of Canada's largest legal marijuana producers, tried to sell its 10.5-per-cent stake in a rival company, The Green Organic Dutchman Holdings Ltd. - better known as TGOD - to public investors.

After two days of marketing, roughly half of the $86.5million in TGOD shares remained unsold, according to sources familiar with the sale. TGOD had been an investor favourite and the deal was priced at a 14.5-per-cent discount to the market, but investors still balked.

At the time, there were already clear signs that the days of easy money for cannabis companies were over. The total amount of money raised by the sector had plunged over the summer. But the TGOD deal sent a message to the entire industry: The taps were almost fully closed.

With little access to fresh cash, Canada's licensed producers now face a new reality. They have spent years focused on financings to fund their expansions, paying little mind to positive cash flow. Without new capital, they will have to scrap construction projects and scale back growth plans.

"The vast majority of the companies are going to go bankrupt," said Igor Gimelshtein, the former chief financial officer of MedReleaf Corp., which was sold to Aurora Cannabis Inc. in 2018 for $3.2-billion. He is a partner at Toronto-based Zola Global Investments, which invests globally in the cannabis industry.

In September, independent investment bank Mackie Research Capital Corp. calculated that nine companies had less than six months worth of cash available to fund operations.

The figure jumps to 21 companies after adding capital expenditures. A few weeks later, TGOD shelved plans to finish a 1.3-million-square-foot greenhouse facility in Quebec, and it is seeking bridge financing just to keep the lights on at a smaller operation in Ontario.

In this environment the share prices of many cannabis stocks have been eviscerated, and executives face painful options: fire sales, shotgun mergers, radical downsizing or bankruptcies. Even the largest producers are selling off assets and taking on expensive financing to ride out the bear market.

In the past two weeks, Canopy Growth Corp. and Aphria Inc. have both sold stakes in Australian cannabis companies.

Late last month, Hexo Corp., Quebec's largest cannabis grower, announced it is shuttering one of its greenhouses and laying off 200 staff.

Amid the rout, cannabis executives are taking it on the chin, and some, including ex-Canopy chief executive Bruce Linton, have been ousted.

Bay Street, however, has largely evaded blame - even though the industry was built on the terms it set. The cannabis bubble was fuelled by stock promoters, hedge fund managers, investment banks and law firms that have helped raise close to $8-billion from public investors since 2017, and have clipped hundreds of millions of dollars in fees in the process.

With the money pouring in, cannabis executives made outlandish predictions and inked expensive deals with few repercussions. Of the industry's many problems, "the biggest one is the lack of intellectual integrity," Mr. Gimelshtein said.

For all the money they made, the industry's original financial backers have now largely moved on to more promising U.S.-based companies, or are out of the sector altogether.

Retail investors, meanwhile, are still heavily invested, holding 80 per cent or more of many cannabis companies' shares.

It is all too familiar a tale. As with so many bubbles, much of the smart money got out early, leaving behind retail investors who clutch shares with dwindling values - with little hope of recouping big losses.

L AY I N G T H E F O U N D AT I O N When the federal Liberals came to power in 2015 with the promise of legalizing and regulating recreational cannabis, they touched off a stock-market frenzy. To many investors, it was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to become the new-age alcohol barons, and licensed producers soon began trading on the TSX Venture Exchange and the Canadian Securities Exchange.

Amid the hype, no one seemed to care how realistic business plans were; actual legalization was still some distant event. It was the perfect environment for stock promoters, many of whom had been starved of oxygen after the junior miners and junior energy companies they touted in the early 2000s, and again after the Great Recession, collapsed after commodity price downturns.

These promoters prowled the country looking for earlystage cannabis companies to take public, typically by merging with a dormant mining shell company still trading on the TSX-V or CSE.

It was a tried-and-true formula. Much like in mining booms, promoters would sell a publicly traded shell to a private cannabis company, then take cheap shares in the new public entity. As a condition of the merger, the cannabis company would also pay for stock promotion, using thirdparty "investor relations" firms to produce online posts and videos directed at unsophisticated retail investors.

Cannabis companies would routinely pay tens, even hundreds, of thousands of dollars for a few months of promotion. One company, Wayland Group Corp., formerly called MariCann Group Inc., paid investor relations firms more than $4.5-million in 2018 - half in cash, half in shares.

One investor relations specialist, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, estimated that at least half the cannabis companies that went public on the CSE were never intended to survive long-term as real businesses. They were vehicles that promoters could use to make quick money, and then bail.

Compared with prior booms, promoters didn't have to work all that hard, either. Many baby boomers and millennials are passionate about cannabis. Millennials were also often new to investing, so they had never experienced a downturn. All they saw was upside potential.

In other words, they were fresh meat.

"It's been really distressing to watch, because I've seen a lot of bad corporate behaviours [and] gross disrespect for shareholder money," said Jeannette VanderMarel, who cofounded TGOD but sold a controlling stake in the company to a group of investors in 2017, when it was still a small, private greenhouse operation. "A lot of it has been shameless self-promotion without any viable products to sell."

Yet, as cannabis stocks soared, detractors found themselves screaming into the wind. To the surprise of everyone, U.S. beverage giant Constellation Brands Inc. bought a 10per-cent stake in Canopy in October, 2017, for $245-million, and pot stock prices soared after. Here was real money from an established company justifying all the hype.

C R E AT I N G T H E B U B B L E - O N B AY S T R E E T 'S T E R M S The cannabis boom was an investment banker's dream.

With so much retail investor demand, it was easy to underwrite share sales - and to dictate the terms of the game.

Because licensed producers weren't generating much revenue or cash flow, the mantra when selling deals was "funded capacity." The formula: Take the value of cash on a producer's balance sheet and multiply it by the amount of land it owned and the amount of cannabis per square foot it hoped to grow. Little attention was paid to the quality of marijuana or the challenges of building a viable business.

"Companies were just rushing for scale," said Aaron Salz, principal with Stoic Advisory Inc., a cannabis capital markets advisory firm. "That wasn't optimized for success with consumers. It was more optimized for success in the capital markets."

It became a speculative circle. The more money a producer raised, the more it was worth - which helped it raise even more money. Aphria Inc., one of the first out of the gate, raised $305-million from four share sales in 2017.

Mergers and acquisitions were also rampant. In early 2018, Aphria agreed to purchase Nuuvera Inc. for $826-million, even though Nuuvera had gone public only four weeks earlier.

For the first several years, the Big Six Canadian banks were too timid to touch cannabis for fear of running afoul of U.S.

federal laws. That left the sector wide open to smaller independent investment banks such as Canaccord Genuity, Eight Capital Corp., GMP Securities Inc. and Clarus Securities.

EXPECTATIONS VS. REALITY Cannabis producers raised billions of dollars between 2014 and 2018 by promising massive greenhouses and industrial scale output. Most have failed to meet expectations. Now that access to capital has dried up, companies are slashing production estimates, reporting lower than expected sales and shelving construction plans.

At Canaccord, cannabis dominated its Healthcare and Life Sciences division, and this unit brought in $267-million in investment-banking revenue in fiscal 2018 and 2019 combined.

Little known to outsiders, the key to much of this fundraising was a small group of Toronto hedge funds - notably MMCAP International, Anson Funds and K2 & Associates.

They figured out how to cycle money through deal after deal, with relatively little risk.

When a brokerage had a large cannabis offering to sell, the hedge funds would buy in. In one example, when Hexo raised $150-million in January, 2019, MMCAP scooped up $75-million, according to a buyer's list obtained by The Globe and Mail.

However, the funds often were not buying shares to hold them. They were using sophisticated financial tricks to get out quickly at a profit.

One tactic involved short-selling, a strategy used to bet on a falling stock price. Financings are usually issued at a discount to market prices in order to attract buyers. But hedge funds anticipating a new cannabis deal could short the issuer's shares before the deal launched. They then covered their positions by purchasing large portions of the financing.

In effect, the hedge funds could instantly earn the discount percentage.

These transactions were frequently aided by cannabis company insiders, who would help the hedge funds short their company's stock by lending shares they owned. All three funds either declined to comment for this story, or did not return a request for comment.

"The guys who were doing most of the bought deals weren't bringing in real buyers," said Anthony George, head trader at independent investment bank Infor Financial Group. "Most of the orders on these deals were guys that were short ... They were providing liquidity, but they were turning over the same paper."

The financial wizardry, while legal, created the impression that producers were attracting long-term institutional investors. In reality, the smart money was often out the door before a financing even closed.

T H E I N E V I TA B L E B U S T Canada's cannabis fever started breaking in mid-2018, under the weight of warnings about ridiculous valuations, bad deals and aggressive stock promotion. Yet, the sector caught a second wind after Constellation invested $5-billion more in Canopy that August.

HMMJ, an exchange-traded fund that tracks publicly traded cannabis companies, jumped 79 per cent in two months.

And then recreational legalization came off as announced on Oct. 17.

But the market downfall that followed was almost as swift. Mere months after legalization, product shortages were rampant and legal retail stores were still scarce. Canopy reported a $323-million quarterly loss in June, and two weeks later Mr. Linton, the one-time face of the Canadian industry, was fired.

Soon afterward, CannTrust Holdings Inc. was found to have grown thousands of kilograms of cannabis in unlicensed parts of a greenhouse in Ontario, leading Health Canada to suspend the company's licences. With all the commotion, demand for new financings dried up and stock prices collapsed.

The current debacle, though, runs deeper than simple investor fatigue. The woes are structural.

Throughout 2018, a stampede of cannabis deals chased a limited pool of money - a trend that was exacerbated by a new wave of U.S.-based companies that went public in Canada. Smart money shifted south, where legal cannabis markets in several states are thriving and federal recreational legalization is looking increasingly likely.

"It became pretty obvious to us that there just wasn't the institutional capital that could support these [Canadian] deals," said Mr. George, the trader at Infor. The same was true for daily trading. "When a stock would correct 10 per cent all of sudden, there was just no one there to stop it."

On top of that, a lot of money remained trapped in private companies. Many of them raised startup capital in 2017 and 2018, with the hopes of going public. That would allow early investors to exit at a profit. Now, however, Canadian IPOs are off the table.

Worse, assets held by those private companies have lost value. Not long ago, a standard Health Canada cultivation licence had a market value between $50-million and $100million, Mr. George says. But Health Canada keeps issuing more licences - 245 growing or processing licenses so far - and each one is now worth less than $10-million.

Starved of cash, one option for the sector is to consolidate. However, mergers are hard to pull off when balance sheets are littered with landmines.

For one, many companies have loads of warrants outstanding. Warrants are similar to stock options, allowing holders to buy shares at a preset price in the future, and they are often offered to cannabis investors as a sweetener when raising money. At the moment, many of these warrants are worthless because market share prices have plummeted.

But if share prices rebound, the warrants could severely dilute the ownership of existing shareholders.

Convertible debt also hangs over much of the industry. As it became harder to sell straight equity, many producers turned to convertible debentures. This debt often allows the issuer to convert the securities to shares if the stock price rises, removing a liability from their balance sheet.

However, if the share price remains below the conversion price, the debentures have to be paid back in full.

Aurora, for example, issued $230-million in convertible debentures that come due in March, and the company can force conversion at $17 per share. Aurora's stock closed at $4.69 on Friday.

In its recent analysis, Mackie, the investment bank, noted that eight cannabis producers have convertible debt that matures in the next 12 months.

"Companies may have to go back and reprice and renegotiate the conversion prices ... creating a more significant dilution event than people maybe anticipated," said Mr. Salz of Stoic Advisory.

S A LVA G I N G W H AT 'S L E F T Cannabis producers are scrambling to adjust to the new reality. In July, Flowr Corp., a mid-sized B.C. grower, cancelled plans to raise $125-million and later settled for $43.5-million instead.

In late October, Vancouver-based Zenabis Global Inc. announced a $20.8-million rights offering that priced the shares 73 per cent below their market price. The company said this was the "least dilutive" way it could access capital, "given current market conditions."

Amid the shakeout, the investment banks that profited the most during the bull market are largely silent. Canaccord Genuity, Eight Capital and Clarus Securities all declined to comment for this story. However, GMP Securities CEO Harris Fricker responded.

"I don't think you can characterize the investment banks that were active here as a homogeneous group," he wrote in an e-mail. "The key players brought very different approaches to the underwriting market and this is very well known on the Street."

Independent investment banks also can't be singled out any more. After staying on the sidelines early on, many large banks entered the cannabis sector in the past year. CannTrust's last financing before running into trouble with Health Canada was underwritten by foreign banks and Royal Bank of Canada.

Despite the shakeout, Mr. Fricker is still optimistic. "We continue to believe that this will ultimately be a huge international market anchored, inevitably, by the United States," he wrote. And like any consumer product, he added, a few key players will dominate.

Some smaller companies could also emerge leaner and stronger. That's what TGOD CEO Brian Athaide is hoping for.

"We would still make these choices [to postpone construction plans] because of market conditions," Mr. Athaide said, "even if we had sufficient cash to do the larger construction. From a business standpoint it makes sense: Why invest more capital before it's needed?" But to win investors back, cannabis companies will need a new mindset: less cowboy mentality, more professionalism.

Too many boards and executive offices were stacked with friends of the founders.

"Finding great talent is the next important phase for this sector," said Les Gombik, an executive recruiter. Yet hiring that talent isn't so easy any more.

"A lot of people entered the industry because it was exciting, and there was huge upside potential," Mr. Gombik said.

Now, executives are confidentially calling his firm and asking for ways out. "It's not as much fun any more," he said.

The radical new reality may surprise retail investors who got burned. But the truth is, Canada has seen this all before.

We are a country rife with commodity cycles.

If previous busts are any indication, there will be blood for many small cannabis producers. The TSX-V housed a lot of the junior mining companies that soared after the Great Recession and the index peaked in February, 2011, but has since lost 77 per cent of its value. Once the growth financing disappeared, companies weren't valued on their potential; they were assessed on what they actually produced.

It is still too early to definitively say that cannabis is in the same spiral. This market has been volatile and there may be another upswing.

All producers aren't identical, either. A handful of companies with strong balance sheets and economies of scale "are ultimately going to be very successful," Mr. Gimelshtein said.

"But before that happens, a bunch of these companies are going to hit the wall." HORIZONS MARIJUANA LIFE SCIENCES INDEX ETF Daily, in Canadian dollars FINANCINGS FOR CANADIAN CANNABIS COMPANIES Total value Total in millions raised in value raised of Canadian milions of Canadian dollars, dollars, quarterly quarterly BRENNAN HIGGONBOTHAM BRENNAN JOHN SOPINSKI/ AND JOHN HIGGINBOTHAM AND SOPINSKI/ THE GLOBE THE AND MAIL, GLOBE AND SOURCE:COMPANY MAIL, SOURCE: COMPANYDISCLOSURES; DISCLOSURES; REFINITIV; BLOOMBERG REFINITIV; BLOOMBERG

ILLUSTRATION BY MATTHEW BILLINGTON

Tuesday, November 05, 2019
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Shopify: How high can Canada's latest tech darling fly?
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By DAVID BERMAN, DAVID MILSTEAD
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page B6

People are going to spend hundreds of billions of dollars online. And Shopify Inc., with its wildly popular software designed to run e-commerce websites, is going to take a good cut of the pie.

The big question is just how big Ottawa-based Shopify's slice will be. It's a $45-billion question, actually - the company's stock market value. Born 15 years ago and launched on stock markets in 2015, Shopify's rocketing share price has propelled it from upstart to Canadian champion, and it is now country's most valuable technology company by far.

Every decade, it seems, Canada produces a tech star that bursts onto the global scene with a hot new business and a stock price that flies into the stratosphere. In the 1990s it was Nortel Networks Corp. with its fibre-optics networking operations, which grew to be a giant that, at its peak, accounted for more than one-third of the value of the TSE 300 index (now known as the S&P/TSX Composite).

In the 2000s, Research In Motion Ltd., since renamed BlackBerry Ltd., soared in value as consumers around the world flocked to its groundbreaking smartphones.

Canadian investors know all too well how Nortel and BlackBerry wound up: They crashed and burned as their competitors caught up to them, or their markets shifted too fast for them to adjust.

Now, Shopify is Canada's tech darling and its huge stock market value makes it the country's 15th-largest public company, ahead of Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd. and energy giant Canadian Natural Resources Ltd.

Obviously, Shopify and its ambitious co-founder and CEO, Tobias Lutke, want to avoid the fate of Nortel and BlackBerry. But daunting competitive challenges loom - enough of them, it seems, to raise questions about just how much risk Shopify investors are taking.

Just about everyone agrees that Shopify is a great company with a solid strategy. The bulls on Shopify's shares - and there are many - see a company with a best-in-class product, happy customers and an almost limitless opportunity as online commerce grows and Shopify expands its offerings to retailers. "To be honest, they essentially have no competition," Gus Papageorgiou, an analyst at PI Financial Corp., said in an interview.

Yet even though Shopify's share price has declined by more than 25 per cent since its peak this past August, the stock remains very expensive. The company has never turned a profit, and isn't expected to in 2020, so there's no way to value Shopify on its earnings. And investors are paying more than $20 for every dollar of sales Shopify records - which is more than twice the price-to-sales multiple for many other well-known growing tech companies.

Some analysts look at that lofty valuation and wonder whether Shopify can grow as quickly or as large as the stock price suggests it must - particularly if the company can't win over big corporate customers that might be able to develop their own systems, or can't compete with social media platforms, such as Instagram or Pinterest, that are adding e-commerce functions for online retailers "Any sane person would say, 'Can this company really grow revenues that fast for that long?' Morningstar analyst Dan Romanoff said in an interview. "There's not a lot of companies that have that kind of track record, to say that there's a precedent out there for that."

The company was born in 2004 when Mr. Lutke launched a business selling snowboards online and found that software options were lacking. He built his own e-commerce software, which he licensed to other retailers, then established Shopify in 2006.

The platform was enthusiastically adopted by budding entrepreneurs and small businesses who lacked the technical skills to develop their own online selling systems.

Shopify now boasts more than one million merchants on its platform - a number that has increased by 30 per cent in just the last 12 months.

Collectively, these merchants sold more than US$15-billion worth of stuff in 40 countries through Shopify in the company's third quarter ended Sept. 30.

Many of these merchants are tiny. But some, such as the BBC, Gatorade, Gund and KKW Beauty, a cosmetics company launched by Kim Kardashian West, are well-known brands that are boosting Shopify's profile as the company expands globally and embraces different languages and currencies.

In its early years, Shopify simply sold monthly subscriptions for its software, collecting extra money for each transaction a user processed. But over time, company has added new services, such as payment-card processing, online postage sales, point-of-sale hardware for its customers to sell merchandise in stores and even short-term business loans.

Shopify has also started moving up the food chain from serving the smallest online businesses to considerably larger ones. The bigger retailers are customers of the more elaborate "Shopify Plus" platform. Many analysts believe that no other company currently offers this one-stop approach-- and the platform gets better as it gets bigger.

Shopify's basic subscription fees range from US$29 to US$299 a month, depending on the complexity of the business and the features needed.

The Shopify Plus platform can cost US$2,000 a month. Shopify calls the rest of the new offerings "merchant services."

More ways to collect money from its clients, plus hooking ever-bigger retailers to the Shopify system, have made for a sexy growth story, and investors have responded. As of Friday, Shopify's shares are up 17-fold since its May, 2015, IPO on the New York and Toronto stock exchanges.

The company joined the blue-chip S&P/TSX 60 earlier this year. At Shopify's Aug. 27 Canadiandollar high of $543.76 on the TSX, the company had a market capitalization that topped $60-billion.

"By any measure, it's ahead of the competition.

It is the platform of choice for entrepreneurs, small businesses and increasingly larger businesses to launch their e-commerce operations. And we have no issue with that," Chris Silvestre, an analyst at Veritas Investment Research, said in an interview.

In a recent research report, however, Mr. Silvestre questions whether people are overestimating Shopify's potential customer base, referred to in financial-speak as the "total addressable market."

In a recent investor presentation, Shopify says it regards that total market as "anyone who wants to make more money from their site than what they pay for it."

More specifically, the presentation has an image of inverted pyramid with a huge number of entrepreneurs at the wide base at the top, and a small number of the biggest brands near the point at the bottom.

In the middle, US$70-billion of merchandise sold each year by small and medium-sized businesses. "The way it's shaped, it gives you the impression that there's a much bigger market out there," Mr. Silvestre says. "So, it really does leave a lot to the imagination."

But Mr. Silvestre says investors shouldn't plan on Shopify powering the websites of the world's largest retailers. By and large, they have complex needs, the ability and resources to develop their own solutions and the desire to retain control over them. Mr. Silverstre estimates Shopify is used in less than 4 per cent of the websites of the top 500 U.S. e-commerce retailers.

Mr. Silvestre also says Shopify faces a challenge when its merchant customers choose to depart from their own websites and sell on other platforms, such such as Amazon or eBay. Social media

sites such as Instagram and Pinterest are also developing payment tools and systems that allow users to buy things without ever leaving the app.

Shopify has apps that allow its customers to sell on those sites, as well as their own websites. But the Amazons of the world can take a much larger share of a merchant's transaction costs than Shopify collects when a customer sticks to its own Shopify-powered website.

Mr. Silvestre cuts the total e-commerce pie in half by subtracting the biggest retailers, and cuts the remainder nearly in half once again when estimating the effect of alternative platforms. The result, he says, is a total addressable market of just one-quarter of e-commerce sales - not all of them, as he figures some of the most optimistic investors may assume.

"I get [that Shopify has] a whole bunch of really fast growing amazing companies, amazing brands, organizations that want to go direct to the consumer," said Mr. Silvestre. "But there is a hard limit on the size of the opportunity, and that's the size of the total e-commerce market. And if we just start making some deductions, it becomes pretty clear that there is a limit to this market. And it's probably less than what people expect, very likely to be smaller than people expect."

What does that limit mean for Shopify's share price? Mr. Silvestre's US$275 "fair value" estimate, published Oct. 15, is now slightly below Friday's New York Stock Exchange closing price of US$297.73.

Other analysts, such as Mr. Papageorgiou of PI Financial, have a more bullish view of Shopify's total addressable market. He said it is essentially immeasurable. It's nearly impossible to quantify the number of merchants worldwide likely to spring up and start selling their products online.

Any estimate must also take into account the growth of companies after they join Shopify's platform, because their swelling top lines mean more fees for Shopify.

Mr. Papageorgiou points to Allbirds Inc., a San Francisco-based shoemaker and retailer. The company likely began paying about US$360 a year for the Shopify platform, but it's now generating an estimated US$100-million in sales a year. (The privately-held company doesn't release financial figures.)

Allbirds pays Shopify 0.25 per cent of sales, Mr.

Papageorgiou says, which translates to US$250,000 a year. That doesn't include the fees when the company's customers use a credit card to make a payment on its website.

"It's a very, very big market," Mr. Papageorgiou said.

In an interview, Harley Finkelstein, Shopify's chief operating officer, said the company estimated the size of its potential market prior to its IPO in 2015 at about 10 million SMBs (small and medium sized businesses) in the company's core market, and 46 million worldwide. That's still a tantalizing 10- to 46-times the size of Shopify's current roster of merchants.

But Mr. Finkelstein says that the early estimates didn't include merchants who don't see themselves as SMBs, which suggests that Shopify's total addressable market could be far larger.

"I don't think that when Kylie started she called herself a retail SMB," Mr. Finkelstein said, referring to Kylie Jenner, the reality-TV star who launched Kylie Cosmetics on Shopify. According to Forbes, Ms. Jenner's business generated an estimated US$360-million in sales last year.

Mr. Finkelstein said that if you add up the revenue generated by Shopify's U.S. merchants on the platform, the combined theoretical entity would be the third-largest online retailer in the United States. That puts the company behind Amazon and eBay, but ahead of Walmart and Apple.

Size now allows Shopify to create its wide suite of offerings at a great price. "This is important because what it allows us to do fundamentally is go and negotiate on behalf of these merchants in a way they couldn't do for themselves," Mr. Finkelstein said.

One of Shopify's newest offerings is "fulfillment": A merchant sells something, but Shopify is in charge of pulling it from inventory, packaging it and shipping it to the buyer. Unlike online postal services or even point-of-sales systems, fulfillment can require immense cash spending on land, warehouses, forklifts and employees. There's also a company called Amazon.com Inc. that has spent billions of dollars to first offer two-day "Prime" shipping, then same-day service and then some deliveries in just hours.

Shopify said it would spend about US$1-billion launching its fulfillment services, then in September announced a US$450-million deal to buy 6 River Systems Inc., a robotics company that promises to boost efficiency in those services. Mr. Finkelstein said any fears that Shopify is going to spend wildly and try to take on giant Amazon - which he describes as a "partner" in e-commerce, not a competitor - are wrong.

Amazon owns its warehouses, while Shopify is minimizing the cash outlay by partnering with third-party companies, he says. And while Amazon is rolling out expensive same-day delivery, Shopify is happy to stick with two days, which it expects is more than enough for its merchants.

Same-day delivery, Mr. Finkelstein said, "is probably more important for Amazon products - for toilet paper or detergent or diapers. But for a beautiful pair of shoes or a cool bracelet or great T-shirt, or anything, for that matter that is sold on Shopify, we think two-day delivery is going to be absolutely sufficient - and will delight consumers."

For now, Shopify's top-line revenue suggests it has been making the right calls. The total in the third quarter increased 45 per cent, year-over-year, to US$391 million. Analysts expect the company is on track to surpass US$1.5-billion in sales for 2019, also up 45 per cent from 2018. That's meteoric growth from 2014, its final year as a private company, when it recorded US$105 million in sales.

But already, Shopify is revealing some growing pains that could challenge some of the more optimistic scenarios underpinning the stock. Growth in year-over-year merchant solutions revenue, while still impressive, has slowed to 50 per cent from 68 per cent in the third quarter of 2018, according to RBC Dominion Securities. Similarly, growth in subscription revenue has decelerated to 37 per cent from 46 per cent a year ago.

Profits are another question. Many investors seem to believe Shopify can keep up a blistering sales pace for some time, and they assume the company will turn those sales to profits. To date, Shopify has not produced positive net income and, on average, analysts do not expect it to next year.

Shopify is a heavy user of stock in its employeepay programs, having awarded more than US$100 million worth in 2018. It releases an "adjusted" profit figure that removes the cost of stock-based compensation - and therefore, shows occasional profitability.

Analysts aren't anticipating that Shopify will generate real profits any time soon. Goldman Sachs analyst Christopher Merwin, for example, expects that the company will continue to invest in growth initiatives such as its fulfillment network and international expansion.

For now, investors will have to make do with operating income, a hypothetical measure of profit from its existing operations that doesn't include expansion initiatives. Mr. Merwin forecasts operating income will rise to US$330.3-million in 2022, up from an expected US$37.4-million in 2019.

Shopify's current stock price values the entire company at 22 times its sales for the past 12 months, according to S&P Global Market Intelligence. Among nine tech companies Veritas's Mr.

Silvestre assembled for comparison, none trade for more than 10 times sales. The median price-tosales ratio in the S&P/TSX Composite is less than three, according to S&P. (See chart.)

A gigantic run-up in Shopify's share price in early 2019 cooled some analysts' heels. Many made so-called "valuation calls" - in essence saying, "We love the company, but we don't love the stock at this price."

Todd Coupland, an analyst at CIBC World Markets, downgraded Shopify in June to a lukewarm "neutral" recommendation from "outperformer," arguing that the upside potential has been priced into the stock. He was one of four analysts who downgraded the shares to neutral from mid-May to late June, according to Bloomberg. Mr. Coupland reiterated this recommendation in late October, after Shopify reported its third-quarter financial results.

Ken Wong, an analyst with Guggenheim Securities Inc., wrote that after an "active week of investor dialogue" following his May downgrade, "we found that approximately 30 per cent of conversations were in the bull camp, 20 per cent questioned the multiple but see no definitive negative catalyst, another 20 per cent were clearly negative and 30 per cent that are watching events unfold on the sidelines, possibly looking for a better entry point."

The percentage of analysts who say Shopify is a buying opportunity has tumbled to 53 per cent, down from 68 per cent at the start of the year and 100 per cent three years ago, according to Bloomberg. Still, their average target price, a forecast for the next 12 months, is US$356.20, or nearly 20 per cent more than Friday's closing price.

The most cautious analysts say, however, that it's hard to see how Shopify, as successful as it has been, can keep this up.

Morningstar's Mr. Romanoff has modelled Shopify's cash flow over the next 15 years - a task, he acknowledges, would be easier with a more mature company. He says the fair value of the company's stock is just US$175, about US$100 below current prices.

The current share price, he argues, implies revenue growth of 25 to 30 per cent every year for the next 15 years. "I don't think they can grow that fast," he says. He says Shopify's annual revenue gain could slip to 23 per cent as soon as 2023. "But again, if you own the stock, or you want to buy, you obviously have to believe there's upside, and that's something that needs to happen to make the math work." Just how big is Shopify's potential market? Veritas Investment Research says Shopify won't get many customers from the 100 biggest U.S.

e-commerce retailers. As for small retailers, many use eBay, Amazon and other third-party marketplaces to sell goods. Shopify has apps that help merchants use those sites, but it collects much less in fees for those transactions. So after deducting those marketplaces from its calculation of Shopify's revenue opportunities, Veritas estimates the company may only be able to tap into about one-quarter of all online sales.


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Where the Kurdish road ends: In Iraq and Turkey, The Globe retraces a people's path from hope to betrayal
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Donald Trump's decision to abandon Kurdish allies in Syria wasn't the first time the invisible nation's dreams of independence have been dashed - and they're worried it won't be the last. Mark MacKinnon returns to Kurdish territory to see how its recent years of progress have been undone
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By MARK MACKINNON
  
  

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Saturday, November 2, 2019 – Page A12

BARDARASH REFUGEE CAMP, IRAQ Tears welled in Fatiyah Salam'seyesasshehuggedher sister, Hamdiyah. Their surroundings, in a refugee camp more than 250 kilometres from their homes, didn't matter, at leastforthemoment.

Fatiyah and Hamdiyah hadn't seen each other since 2013, when Fatiyah fled northeastern Syria as IslamicStatefightersapproached her hometown. Her sister stayed behind.Forthepastsixyears,Fatiyah has lived with her daughterin-lawandgrandsonintheDomiz refugee camp, on the outskirts of the Iraqi city of Dohuk, wonderingwhenitmightbesafetoreturn totheKurdishpartofSyria.

Times seemed to get better in Rojava, as the Kurdish enclave in northeastern Syria is known, especially after U.S. soldiers arrived in the area to help crush the selfdeclared caliphate. Maybe, the family hoped, they'd be able to movehomesoon.

The Salam sisters - at 56, Fatiyah is the elder by two years - were reunited on Oct. 23, not in Rojava, but in Bardarash, yet anotherrefugeecampintheKurdish region of northern Iraq, where Hamdiyah arrived after her own flight from northern Syria. She will spend at least the next three weeksinBardarashwhileherdocumentsareprocessed.

Reuniting in Rojava became impossible when U.S. President Donald Trump withdrew troops from the region earlier this month and greenlighted Turkey's invasion aimed at driving out the KurdishPeople'sProtectionUnits (YPG)militia.

The sisters' meeting in a refugeecampsurelysignalsthedeath of the dream of a Kurdish state in northeasternSyria-justthelatest time that an independent country called Kurdistan has seemed close,onlytoproveamirage.

The fact that the Bardarash camp exists speaks to the neverendingcrisisthattheestimated28 million Kurds scattered across Iraq,Turkey,SyriaandIranlivein.

The camp was initially erected in 2014 to receive refugees fleeing the nearby Iraqi city of Mosul, afteritfellintothehandsofIS.

It was finally dismantled earlier this year after the last of those refugeestrickledhome,onlytobe hurriedly reopened in mid-October to receive the Syrian Kurds who began fleeing after Mr.

Trump withdrew American protectionfromRojava.

Many Kurds believe the real aim of the offensive ordered by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan is to drive Kurds out of Rojava and replace them with ethnic Arabs allied to the Turkish military.

Calamity is heaped upon calamity in this part of the world.

The refugees who reach northern Iraq are taken by bus from the border to Bardarash via a route that passes between two sprawling camps that together hold almost 200,000 Yazidi refugees (a religiousminoritythatsharesethnic roots with the Kurds), whose community was targeted for genocidebyIS.Theirshatteredhome region remains uninhabitable fiveyearslater.

ThebetrayaloftheKurdsdidn't begin with Mr. Trump. Over a 10day drive across the lands of this invisible country - a journey that took photographer Andrea DiCenzoandImorethan1,000kilometresthroughnorthernIraq,via refugee camps filling up with Kurds fleeing Syria, and into the repressed southeast of Turkey - many of the Kurds I meet remind me that their tragedy, in its modern form, began a century ago.

The great powers who divided up the Ottoman Empire after the First World War decided that the Middle East they were redrawing would be easier to manage withoutaland-lockedKurdistaninthe middle.

Since then, the Kurds have repeatedly risen up in Iraq, Turkey, SyriaandIran,onlytobecrushed eachtime-includingwiththeuse of chemical weapons by Saddam Hussein's regime - while the international community looked away. Their language and culture have been systematically repressedbyallfourstatestheylive under.

"Whatever takes place - chemical bombardments, air strikes, keeping us from having an independent state - the big powers can do it and get away with it," said Hussein Ali, a family friend whodroveFatiyahfromtheDomiz camp to Bardarash to meet her sister. "It is not in the interest of thebigcountriesforKurdstohave acountryanduseourresourcesto protectourselves."

Forthepast16years,eversince Iraq's Kurds marched south with the U.S. armies that ousted Mr.

Hussein,theyandtheircausehad one important ally: the United States of America. That ended on Oct. 6 when Mr. Trump, after a phone call with Mr. Erdogan, abruptly pulled U.S. soldiers out of the part of Kurdistan that lies within modern-day Syria. The Syrian Kurds, who had lost 11,000 fighters while spearheading the defeatofIS,werelefttotheirown deviceswhiletheirfutureisbeing decided between Mr. Erdogan, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Mr. Putin's client, Syrian strongmanBasharal-Assad.

Suddenly,Iraq'sKurds,clinging totheautonomousregionthey've carved out in the mountains east of Mosul, worry that they're a Trump tweet away from a similar fate.

I'dtravelledthroughKurdistan before, in 2008. Then, I found a people optimistic about the future,fondoftheU.S.andallthings Western. Retracing part of that journey in 2019, I encountered growing anger at the U.S. and the West, blended with a sense of defeat - as if decades of progress toward the Kurds' long-held dream of independence had been undone by one poorly considered presidentialdecree.

ERBIL, IRAQ The capital of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) - the mini-stateinnorthernIraqthatis the closest the Kurds have ever come to a country of their own - was surprisingly quiet when we arrived in late October. A five-day pause in Turkey's offensive against Rojava was about to expire, and the trickle of refugees crossing into the KRG was threateningtobecomeaflood.ButErbil remaineddeceptivelycalm.

The nearest thing to a popular protest came Oct. 21, when a group of young men pelted a U.S.

militaryconvoy-whichwasarriving in Erbil after withdrawing from Rojava - with stones as it travelledtotheAmericanmilitary base outside the city. Fearful that such scenes might annoy Mr.

Trump into ending U.S. support for Iraqi Kurdistan, too, the KRG ordered the men arrested the samenight.

The KRG is caught between a population that instinctively wants to stand with its Kurdish brethren in Syria, and a governmentthatknowsthatthree-quarters of the region's trade comes via Turkey. Many Erbil residents say they're boycotting Turkishmade products, but every day, trucks carrying crude oil - the region's main export - travel down the highway to Turkey, passing trucks heading the opposite direction laden with Turkish-refinedfuelandothergoods."Inthe KRG,ourheartsareinRojava,but ourhandsareinthepocketsofErdogan. If he closes the border tomorrow, people will starve here," saidHiwaOsman,aprominentlocaljournalist.

TheKRGisafraidtolosewhatit has. This mini-state stands both as proof that Kurds can govern themselves and a reminder of all the barriers standing between themandgenuineindependence.

Iraq's Kurds have their own border regime - this is the only partofthecountrywhereWesternerscanarrivewithoutfirstsecuring a visa - and social policies that are far more liberal than in the areas governed by Baghdad.

Women play visible roles in politics and the economy. The Christian and Yazidi minorities say theyfeelsafehere.

The model of a moderate Muslim democracy that Iraqi Kurds have built is a dangerous one in the eyes of its neighbours. Even more threatening was the autonomous region's status as a proud ally of both the U.S. and Israel, a position that put it at odds with Iran,aswellasitsproxiesinBaghdadandDamascus.

WhenImadeanothertriptoErbil in 2014, two of the most optimistic people I met were Tanya Gilly Khailany, a Canadian-educated politician who had served asanMPattheIraqiparliamentin Baghdad, and her husband, Dara Khailany, an adviser to the KRG's then-prime minister (now President),NechirvanBarzani.

A catastrophe was unfolding thatyear,just80kilometrestothe westofErbil.ISfightershadseized control of Iraq's second-largest city,Mosul.ThebattletodefeatIS would subsequently claim thousandsofIraqiKurdishlives(inaddition to the 11,000 Syrian Kurds killed) as they fought alongside a U.S.-led international coalition to slowly liberate the lands that had fallenunderIScontrol.

ButtotheKhailanys,therewas also opportunity in this crisis.

Both spoke of their hope that the countries the Kurds had allied themselves with - first and foremost the U.S. - would finally understandwhytheKurdsneededto be independent. Iraq and Syria wereonthevergeofceasingtoexist. Who could argue that the Kurds shouldn't go their own way?

"Right now, all options are on the table," Ms. Gilly Khailany, a graduate of Carleton University, told me at the time. Three years later, the KRG made its move, holdingareferendumonwhether to declare an independent state.

Unlike the close-fought campaigns in Quebec and Scotland that the KRG pointed to as models,theSeptember,2017,votewas a romp, with 93 per cent voting Yes.

But none of the Kurds' allies - not the U.S., not Canada, which had deployed soldiers to advise the Kurdish peshmerga forces as theybattledIS-backedtheKurds' desire for a country of their own.

WhenthefederalIraqiarmy,supportedbyIranian-backedShiamilitiamen, marched a month later on the Kurdish city of Kirkuk - in an oil-rich region economically vitaltotheideaofanindependent Kurdistan - the peshmerga withdrew. It had been made clear to themthattheWesterntroopssupporting their fight against IS would not help the Kurds defend landtheyconsideredtheirown.

"I still remember that day [of the referendum]. I took my daughterandtoldher'maybeyou will see this [an independent state]inyourlifetime.' Ididn'texpect it would happen overnight, butwewereclose.Wewerealmost there," Ms. Gilly Khailany said, fightingbacktearsatthememory.

"But it didn't happen that way.

We've been set back two generations."

Her husband, from his office inside the KRG headquarters in Erbil, is just trying to manage the shifting realities.

The government is facing political pressure - including from activists such as Ms. Gilly Khailany - to do more to support the Kurds of Rojava. But Mr. Khailany is well aware that Turkey could quickly crush the economy of northern Iraq if Mr. Erdogan wanted to.

"I think more people will come to the realization that we have to be realistic. We are in a region where we have to go through these people - who some consider to be our enemies - in order to survive. If we had a border with any European country, or even an Asian country, it would have been different," Mr. Khailany said. "If you can't rely on the United States of America, who can you rely on?" Divisions among the Kurds themselves have long been a weak point. Even in northern Iraq, the eastern third of the mini-state is governed by the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), a long-time rival of Mr. Barzani's Kurdish Democratic Party. The two factions fought a civil war in the 1990s, and deep animosity lingers today. Drive east from Erbil and road quality deteriorates as soon as you enter PUK-controlled areas. The money and investment apparent in Erbil isn't shared with Mr. Barzani's political rivals.

There are also geopolitics at play: To the extent that Erbil is under Turkish influence, the PUK is economically and politically reliant on Iran.

Many see a similar dynamic at play in Erbil's reluctance to fully back the YPG in this moment.

While Iraq's Kurds instinctively sympathize with their Syrian cousins - there were calls in the regional parliament for Iraqi Kurdish forces to be sent to fight the Turkish army alongside the YPG - the ruling Barzani clan see the YPG as a rival and a nuisance.

In fact, Erbil has often been accused of taking Turkey's side.

Three times during Rojava's brief flirtation with U.S.-protected autonomy, Erbil closed its lone border with Syria in what critics said was an attempt to score political points with Mr. Erdogan.

"We used to think a [united Kurdistan] was possible. In 2014, 2015, 2016, we heard it was a political project of the U.S. to unite these two [Iraqi and Syrian] parts," said Abdulselam Mohammed, a 42-year-old Syrian Kurd and YPG supporter I met in a teahouse beneath Erbil's historic citadel. "Now, I am not optimistic about this, because [Iraqi] Kurdistan is under the occupation of Turkey - economically and sometimes politically."

Mr. Mohammed was an English teacher before the outbreak of Syria's civil war, then helped translate documents for the local administration after Rojava gained de facto autonomy. He was forced to move to Erbil in January because his 17-year-old daughter developed leukemia and needed medical treatment she couldn't receive in Syria.

He said that if he had a choice, he would have remained in Rojava to face the Turkish invasion.

Instead, he's watching from afar, fuming at how quiet the Kurds of Iraq and Turkey remain while their Syrian cousins are driven from their homes.

"Maybe this is our fate, to always be divided, not to be like other nations, who have a home," Mr. Mohammed said, staring into an almost-empty glass of tea. "It makes us weak and easy to be occupied by our enemies." BARDARASH REFUGEE CAMP, IRAQ The reunions in the refugee camp keep happening. Shortly after we watch the Salam sisters embrace, another convoy of 19 buses arrives, each carrying between 20 and 30 more refugees from Syria.

Two women dressed in long, colourful chadors shuffle alongside the convoy as it enters Bardarash, scanning the buses for their own long-lost family members.

A young boy and girl lean out the window of the second-to-last bus, and the two women - aunts the children haven't seen in six years - reach up and pinch their cheeks in a moment of pure relief.

A few tents away from the one Hamdiyah has been assigned (while she waits for permission to join her relatives in the Domiz camp), 19-year-old Jihan Mahmoud was settling into her third new home in as many months.

Ms. Mahmoud and her family first fled from their Syrian hometown of Kobane in 2013, just ahead of the arrival of the IS. They lived for six years as refugees in Turkey before deciding this summer that it was finally safe to go home. Now they're on the run again, this time fleeing the country that had until recently given them refuge.

"I don't really understand why this is happening," Ms. Mahmoud said, clutching a backpack containing everything she still owns.

IBRAHIM KHALIL CROSSING, IRAQ-TURKEY BORDER Corruption has done as much to undermine the Iraqi Kurdistan project as any of its neighbours.

We drive west from Bardarash to the city of Dohuk, then onward to Iraq's border with Syria. There, we discover that the YPG - hoping to prevent a mass exodus of Kurds from the region - has sealed its side of the border, forcing refugees to pay smugglers hundreds of dollars a person to escape. When we visit the Faysh Khabur border between Iraq and Syria on Oct. 24, a peshmerga border guard tells us that not a single refugee has crossed that day, even though 1,700 Syrian Kurds would arrive in Bardarash camp by nightfall after taking a longer and more dangerous journey to cross into Iraq via another route.

Smuggling of a different kind rules the Iraq-Turkey border.

When we arrive the next day at the Ibrahim Khalil crossing, Andrea and I are besieged by taxi drivers desperate to be the ones who take us. Driving a Western traveller across the frontier, I'd learned the last time, is excellent cover for a smuggler who doesn't want the contents of their car to be scrutinized too closely.

Determined not to be part of the racket, Andrea and I found another peshmerga and told him we didn't want to cross with bandits. He nodded his head and summoned a minibus forward.

"Don't worry," he said. "This driver is my friend."

There were packages of smuggled cigarettes crammed into every conceivable space in the vehicle.

AKCAKALE, TURKEY In Turkey, the chaos of Iraqi Kurdistan disappears, replaced by the grim seriousness of NATO's second-largest army. The border with Iraq is guarded by green watchtowers. Further in, there are regular military checkpoints where cars are forced to drive through a gauntlet of armoured personnel carriers and soldiers clutching M-16 assault rifles as they stare into passing vehicles.

Rojava is visible out the left window of our car for most of our long drive to the border town of Akcakale, which plays host to the temporary news media centre that the Turkish military has set up for the duration of its crossborder operation.

The frontier with Syria is lined with a three-metre-high concrete wall, topped with razor wire. Pillboxes on dirt mounds allow Turkish soldiers to peer over at what is - when we pass - a Russian-led operation to persuade the YPG to withdraw.

The effort is part of an agreement reached between Mr. Erdogan and Mr. Putin (whose status as the region's main power broker was confirmed by the precipitous U.S. withdrawal). By Wednesday, the Russian Ministry of Defence had announced that the YPG had withdrawn from the 30-kilometre "safe zone" sought by Mr. Erdogan. Joint RussianTurkish patrols in the area were due to begin on Friday.

Associated Graphic

PHOTOGRAPHY BY ANDREA DICENZO/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A vendor pushes a cart outside of a tea house in Erbil, which is the capital of the Kurdistan Regional Government and a mini-state in northern Iraq - the closest the Kurds have come to an independent region of their own.

A man sits below a poster depicting Middle Eastern leaders in a tea-shop in Erbil. The region has often been accused of taking Turkey's side, especially after the mini-state closed its only border with Syria.

Former Iraqi MP Tanya Gilly Khailany, top, is seen at her office in Iraqi Kurdistan. The politician is one of many fighting for Iraqi Kurdistan's independence. Kurdish journalist Hiwa Osman, above, who is seen in his home in Erbil, says KRG residents depend on Turkey for their livelihoods.

MURAT YÜKSELIR / THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: REUTERS; TILEZEN; OPENSTREETMAP CONTRIBUTORS; HIU; CIA

Syrian Kurds fleeing the Turkish incursion in northeastern Syria embrace at the Badarash refugee camp in northern Iraq.

Turkish Kurds pick cotton in the agricultural lands just outside Sanliurfa, a city where animosity is rising between Turks, Arabs and Kurds.

A tourist takes a photo of the reconstruction of Sur, a neighbourhood in Diyarbakir, Turkey, that was levelled after heavy fighting between Turkish-state and Kurdistan Workers' Party supporters in 2015.


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DARK SIDE OF THE BOOM
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An explosion of U.S. TV and filmmaking in Toronto is squeezing Canadian creators out of the picture, Simon Houpt writes
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By SIMON HOUPT
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page R1

A cluster of black limousines gleamed in front of a sprawling warehouse near Toronto's Pearson Airport the other day, an incongruous vision of glitz along a dull industrial stretch of road.

Once upon a time, the low-slung building served as a primary distribution hub for the Canadian operation of Kraft Heinz, sending millions of tubs of peanut butter and KD mac & cheese out across the country. On this day, though, dignitaries nibbled on finger food crafted in a more refined key - braised beef short ribs with a maple-bourbon demi glaze; pan-seared cod with a Champagne yuzu sauce - while stars from the TV shows Star Trek: Discovery and In the Dark strolled a red carpet.

Bonnie Crombie, the mayor of Mississauga, stepped excitedly to the microphone and welcomed the guests to her burg on the western edge of Toronto, which she called Studio City North: "I like the sound of that!"

she beamed.

Crombie had reason to be enthusiastic. In less than 12 months, workers had retrofitted the old Kraft operation with 20,000 sheets of drywall, 21,000 soundinsulation panels and 42 kilometres of wiring, transforming it into CBS Stages Canada. The state-of-the-art TV and film facility, boasting six sound stages totalling 260,000 square feet, is the first dedicated production hub in this country for CBS Corp.

It is also the latest arrival in a galloping expansion of studio space under way in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA). By early next year, Mississauga alone will have 700,000 square feet of space across five studios. "These investments will put our city on the international map for film and television, and inject a renewal of excitement in our creative industries sector scheme," Crombie promised.

The unprecedented expansion is fuelled by an arms race among U.S.-based streaming services stockpiling an arsenal of programming to snag subscribers.

Deep-pocketed combatants making TV in the GTHA include Hulu (The Handmaid's Tale), CBS All Access (Star Trek: Discovery), Netflix (The Umbrella Academy, Titans) and Amazon (The Boys, The Expanse).

Employment in the sector is booming: Ontario Creates, a government agency which facilitates media production in the province, says the industry now supports approximately 37,000 fulltime jobs, up more than 15 per cent from 32,000 jobs in the summer of 2018. Vic Fedeli, Ontario's Minister of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade, declared that the CBS studio, which will employ about 300 local craftspeople when fully booked, demonstrated the province is "open for business."

But as foreign business floods in, Canadian creators - who already struggle to get their projects made and seen in a marketplace of slick Hollywood product - are being squeezed as never before. Local suppliers are tied up serving U.S. companies, spurring growing concerns about a branch-plant industry smothering local talent. And while more studios are being built, there is still more demand for space than there is supply, leaving local TV producers and filmmakers priced out of the market as they try to get Canadian stories in front of the cameras and out to audiences.

Even owning a studio doesn't necessarily help. In the spring of 2018, Bell Media, which owns the CTV and CTV2 broadcast networks as well as dozens of specialty channels, purchased a majority stake in Pinewood Toronto Studios, currently the largest studio complex in the country. But Randy Lennox, the president of Bell Media, says the company is shut out of Pinewood for the foreseeable future, because the studio was already booked up before the purchase with shows such as Star Trek: Discovery, which runs in Canada on Bell's newly rebranded CTV Sci-Fi (née Space) channel.

"We can't get in," Lennox told The Globe and Mail in a recent interview. "It's a squatter's rights situation. Star Trek: Discovery is a massive undertaking at Pinewood for us."

"It's great that the show keeps getting renewed," he added. Still, he had hoped to make Pinewood "a community offering," where both Bell Media and Canadian independent producers can make their own content. That will have to wait.

According to data provided by Ontario Creates, the increased production activity in the province is due almost entirely to what is known as foreign location and service (FLS) productions: shows that are shot here with Canadian crews and technicians, but are not considered to be Canadian content because Canadians do not occupy enough of the key creative positions, such as writer, director, producer or lead acting roles. The stories are almost never set in Canada.

Such foreign productions increased approximately 23 per cent over two years, jumping from $847-million of spending in Ontario in 2016 to $1.04-billion in 2018; domestic production, meanwhile, rose a mere $5-million over the same period, to $847-million. The foreign-domestic split has gone from 50-50 to 55-per-cent foreign versus 45per-cent domestic in just two years.

That mirrors a growing imbalance between foreign and domestic production that is even more pronounced across the country. A report issued last spring by the Canadian Media Producers Association indicated that foreign production in Canada had risen 26 per cent from 2017 to 2018, to approximately $4.8-billion, while domestic TV and film production had fallen approximately 9 per cent in the same period, down to $3-billion.

(That latter figure does not include in-house production of domestic broadcasters.)

The increase in foreign spending, and the frenzy for studios, crews, locations, and other support services, is pricing Canadian creators out of the better facilities - and even Toronto itself.

"It is a bit of a bummer, in terms of certain vendors that we're used to going to that we've created relationships with over the years suddenly being not available or able to help us out, because Netflix is in town shooting 15 things," says producer Lindsay Tapscott. Last year, she and her producing partner Katie Nolan opted to shoot the indie drama The Rest of Us in North Bay, lured there by the provincial government's Northern Ontario

Heritage Fund, which rebates 50 per cent of a production's local spending, up to a $500,000 payment.

In a sign of mounting concerns, last summer, the federal Department of Canadian Heritage initiated a study of the effect of foreign location and services production activity on the domestic production industry. The results are expected later this fall.

Toronto-based production manager Robbie David says the squeeze is hurting his ability to do business. "I'm turning down shows right now, because I'm not going to be able to get a studio," said David, whose credits include the Canadian TV series Mary Kills People and the feature American Woman, which premiered at last month's Toronto International Film Festival. "This has been a problem for the last three years, and it gets worse - not every year, it gets worse every few months."

David says the industry's top priority should be new studios.

"They're building them in Toronto. But you can't just concentrate on Toronto anymore, it has to be all over Ontario." That's because the cost of studio rentals is tied in large part to the value of the underlying real estate. With the cost of land in Toronto continuing to rise, other locales are jockeying, trying to offer themselves up as legitimate alternative production centres.

Lennox told The Globe that Bell Media's Canadian version of RuPaul's Drag Race will shoot in Hamilton when it begins production this month. "I have four shows [shooting] in Ontario, none of which are in Toronto, for the precise reason it's not affordable - commensurate to the level of production that I'm speaking of," he explained.

The province hopes conditions will improve over the next few years as another dozen or so production facilities come onstream, helping to double the studio space in Ontario from 2.3 million square feet last year to as much as 4.6 million by 2022.

(Pinewood is in the middle of adding 200,000 square feet to its main campus in Toronto's Port Lands area.) Still, there is no guarantee foreign demand won't soak up all of the extra supply.

And even as construction continues, Canadian productions sometimes have to settle for the crumbs. Justin Cutler, the Ontario Film Commissioner with Ontario Creates, acknowledged that well-financed U.S. companies have tied up some of the highest quality studio space: Netflix, for example, has leased eight sound stages in two downtown Toronto facilities, totalling about 250,000 square feet.

"Ontario Creates has worked hard with some of the companies that have taken long-term leases, to understand when those stages are going dark [temporarily]," Cutler explained. "We've worked very closely with Netflix over the last month to get that stage availability back into the hands of domestic producers."

Looking for a longer-term solution, David joined a handful of industry players to form Aeon Studio Group, which last June announced a memorandum of understanding with the city of Hamilton to build a massive multiuse development on what are known as the Barton-Tiffany Lands. The city-owned site in the West Harbour area has a checkered history that includes heavy industry that likely left the land contaminated, requiring remediation. In 2010, the city demolished a handful of buildings there in hopes of constructing a new stadium for the Hamilton Tiger-Cats CFL team. But that wound up being built elsewhere, and the site has now sat desolate for almost a decade.

If the city and Aeon can agree on terms of a land purchase, the company hopes to build up to 500,000 square feet of studio space in what it is calling the Hamilton Studio District, a development that would include housing, retail and offices, and that councillors hope would help spur the city's creative renaissance. Aeon intends to open its first studio space, converting an existing building for 150,000 square feet, by next summer. By the time the development is complete - in anywhere from five to 20 years - Aeon expects it will support about 1,000 direct and spin-off jobs.

"We believe the quality of the facility we plan to build will make this attractive for productions, even if they have to spend an extra 20 minutes driving [from Toronto]," said Jeff Anders, one of the partners of Aeon.

After all, he explains, while studios are essentially commodities - landlords build and then rent out large, empty shells on a series of short-term leases - the quality of spaces can differ enormously. They depend on such quotidian factors as ceiling height (which can proscribe lighting possibilities and the size of sets) and the spacing of structural pillars: a restriction that can frustrate production designers.

"When we analyze the full stock of space [in Ontario], we think that half of the capacity is forgettable. It's either too lowceilinged, there are pillars throughout, sound attenuation isn't there, vibration control isn't there," he explains. "As a province with about one per cent of the global [TV and film production] market, I'm saying we could have and should have more."

He admits there may be some insurmountable hurdles, including the cost and logistics of site remediation. "There are still a lot of unknowns on the financial side of things. We believe this is a viable project. But it remains to be seen."

Back in Mississauga, Armando Nunez, the president and chief executive of CBS Global Distribution Group, played down concerns that Canadians might have about the explosion of American content swamping Canadian creators and their stories. "Hasn't that ship sailed?" he asked rhetorically, in an interview with The Globe. "I mean, through technology, you can be swamped by any content from any place in the world."

"We've always been sensitive to the idiosyncrasies of Canada as a market, and Canadian cultural sensitivities," he added.

"That is something over the years we've had conversations with our broadcast partners about.

But at the end of the day, the fact is that Canada has warmly and enthusiastically embraced American content - irrespective of where it gets made."

Fedeli, the Ontario minister and MPP for the riding of Nipissing, in Northern Ontario, says it doesn't bother him if this country's creators have to go outside of the major centres to make Canadian stories. He sees Toronto as a place where Canadians get trained on foreign productions and then work on smaller, domestic stories in places such as Parry Sound or his hometown of North Bay. "For Toronto, you really need this big horsepower of CBS," he said, during an interview with The Globe on the Chicago-set CBS soundstage of In the Dark.

Still, he added, "In the North, from our perspective, we really like to see the more home-grown productions." He pulled out his phone and flipped through photos of the new outdoor set in the municipality of Powassan of When Hope Calls, a spin-off of the Hallmark Channel series When Calls the Heart, which is being made for Hallmark's streaming service. "They've built an entire town!" he marvelled.

Certainly, places such as Powassan and Hamilton seem eager for the attention and business, prompting some Canadian creators to adapt their stories to the new locales. Filmmaker Atom Egoyan set his new film in Hamilton in part because he says he believed it would be logistically easier than if it were to take place in Toronto. Guest of Honour, which premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival last month, centres on a restaurant inspector who sometimes creates false health infractions in order to exert leverage over restaurateurs.

"On a very practical level, we needed access to a lot of restaurants, and in Toronto, a lot of those restaurants would not want to be identified with a food inspector who's coming in and finding faults: things that are not up to code," Egoyan told The Globe.

In Hamilton, however, "there was an openness. People were just so excited we were shooting there, so they weren't so stuck up on that. The places we went to in Hamilton were able to see: It's a story. They were just very open to us being there."

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY DREW SHANON

CBS Stages Canada, a state-of-the-art TV and film facility in Mississauga, is the first dedicated production hub in Canada for CBS Corp., part of an unprecedented expansion in studio space in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area.

GEORGE PIMENTEL

CBS's In the Dark is one of many TV series being filmed in Toronto - sometimes at the expense of local content creators.


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Louisiana's sinking feeling: As coastline vanishes, locals scramble to save what they can
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At the end of the most commercially important freshwater highway in the U.S., the Mississippi River, thousands of square kilometres have been lost to the ocean. Engineering a solution will be costly - and it was human interference that caused the problem to begin with
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By LEYLAND CECCO
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Thursday, November 7, 2019 – Page A10

Ryan Lambert steers his aluminum skiff through the narrow channels of Louisiana's salt marshes at the edge of the Gulf of Mexico. His huntingdog,Logan,peersoverthesidefor birds, hidden among patches of roseau cane and windswept marsh grasses. Over more than four decades, Mr. Lambert has hunted and fished the waters. But the rapid changes to the landscape have left him deeply troubled as he scans the wetlands.

"We've already lost an area greater than theGrandCanyon,"saidMr.Lambert,who runs a fishing lodge in the town of Buras.

In May, the Mississippi River and its tributaries were flooded across its vast floodplain, which covers more than a million square kilometres. Towns and farmland far upstream were swamped, costing farmers billions of dollars and keeping residents on edge.

While land loss and flooding are distinct crises, they are nonetheless linked to asingleandprofoundlyimportantnatural resource: the mighty Mississippi River.

This heavily engineered freshwater highway, which generates billions in economic value, has increasingly punished many of the communities that rely on its waters.

Attempts to control the river's natural flood cycles have had short-term benefits, but the long-term prospects are bleak for those along its lower banks, and made bleaker by the new challenges wrought by climate change. It's unclear how much of the surrounding land can be saved, but, as relocation efforts get under way, the scenario serves as a cautionary tale about how much - or how little - we should tinker with nature. Other communities may yetlearnfromthemistakesmadewiththe Mississippi.

For thousands of years, the waters of the river have flowed unimpeded from evergreen forests in Minnesota, along the agriculturally rich midwest states and into thesouth,wheretheypassthroughstands of cypress trees draped with wispy Spanish moss, eventually emptying into the Gulf of Mexico.

Because of its slow and gently meandering route, it has become the most commercially important body of water in the United States. Each year, 175 million tons of goods move along its banks. By some estimates, the shipping traffic is worth in excess of US$500-billion. Farmers use it to get grains to China; oil and gas companies use it as a simple route for moving crude to global markets.

To ensure the orderly movement of goods, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers spent decades building a sprawling system of infrastructure along the Mississippi. The upper sections of the river and its two major tributaries are constrained through a series of locks and dams maintained by the Corps to ensure the river remains navigable.

On the lower portions, from Illinois to Louisiana, the river is so large that no dams are needed.

All of the river, including its southern section, is laced with dikes, to help direct the channel, and earthen levees, to keep the river from pouring out onto the surrounding land.

But flooding, for all of its destruction, has an important role. Large rivers naturally carry millions of tons of sediment and are responsible for creating thousands of square kilometres of farmable land when the floodwaters recede. The same cities that are protected by levees - New Orleans and Baton Rouge, along with the hundreds of towns and villages in the Mississippi Delta - exist because of countless sediment layers deposited by the river over thousands of years.

The fertile sediment of Southern Louisiana,likeanydeltaregion,hasatendency to sink as it compacts, requiring constant replenishment to remain above the creeping Gulf of Mexico.

But the levees - the engineering solution meant to prevent the river's natural nst flood cycles - stop the Mississippi's floodwaters from rebuilding land. As the Traght ically Hip sang three decades ago, New Orleans is sinking.

As almost a direct result of these earthen mounds GY, tracing the river, more than 5,000 square kilometres of coastline in Louisiana - which contains nearly half of America's coastal wetlands - have been lost over the past 80 years. Areas where cows grazed only a decade ago are now beneath the ocean, Mr. Lambert said. "I've watched all the land around here completely disappear."

After tracking the damage done in 2019, a handful of water experts agree that the Mississippi is growing larger and stronger, and it is only a matter of time before a large, cataclysmic disaster strikes.

In mid-May, the Louisiana government announced ambitious plans to help move residents away from "high-risk" areas, an admission implied among the 1,500 pages of the government report that the situation is worsening.

"We have to be realistic about the current and future effects of coastal land loss and plan today to develop Louisiana's next generation of communities," Democratic Governor John Bel Edwards said in a statement after the release of the report.

Already, relocation efforts have begun.

TheLouisianagovernmentwillspendmillions to move the Indigenous community of Biloxi-Chitimacha-Choctaw near New Orleans, whose territory on the Isle de Jean Charles has vanished by 98 per cent since 1955 because of land loss.

And on a smaller scale, residents of Pecan Acres, a neighbourhood in Baton Rouge, are set to move to higher ground by 2021 - the result of a push to remove houses from "Flood City."

With only levees to protect it, Mr. Lambert's town of Buras, an outpost south of New Orleans, is in one of the highest-risk areas in the state.

AfterthedevastationwroughtbyHurricane Katrina, and a recognition that the Gulf will continue to approach the land unabated, most of the residents have already left.

"What's the use of saving something when no one's here?" Mr. Lambert said.

The state has allocated US$50-billion to fight coastal erosion, and already, a number of solutions are on the table. While experts agree that no single plan will save thecoastline,anumberofproposalstaken together could have a substantive impact.

Some plans include developing cuttingedge - but costly - machinery to pump sediment from the river to areas where it is needed most, and creating humanmade islands to keep the ocean water at bay.

Otherresidents-includingMr.Lambert - advocate breaking open sections of the levees to divert river water back into areas that have been overtaken by salt water.

There's evidence that this approach can work: When Hurricane Camille broke through levees in 1969, one of those gaps wasleftopen,allowingtherivertoresume the flows that had for years been halted.

Over decades, the sediment-laden waters quickly rebuilt the archipelagos of vegetation, luring back wildlife that had long ago fled.

But Mr. Lambert, who has the ear of influential politicians in state government from his years of lobbying as a business owner, faces stiff opposition from oyster farmers, many of whom eke out meagre incomes from their work. They would face financial ruin if Mr. Lambert had his way - with the freshwater from the river flooding, and subsequently destroying, their oyster farms.

Anddespitetheoptimismamongthose advocating for the leash around the river tobeloosened,thecurrentrealityrequires it be controlled as much as possible.

In late spring, a deluge of melted snow and heavy rains breached levees, inundatedmillionsofhectaresoffarmlandand flooded multiple towns. In Cairo, Ill., just south of St. Louis, the river remained in a flood stage for more than 150 days in a row.

Julywasnobetter,withahurricanebarrellingdownonNewOrleansandtheriver reaching dangerously high levels. Without levees, storm surges and widespread flooding would devastate the city, which sits below the river. A full-on disaster was avoided, largely the result of favourable weather patterns. But many believe it is only a matter of time.

Yi Jun Xu, a professor of hydrology at Louisiana State University, has spent years scouring the river, studiously examining sediment buildup in different sections of the Mississippi.

With all its dams, he says, the river is like a pipe growing increasingly clogged at a rate faster than it could ever be cleared.

At the same time, Mr. Xu and his colleagueshavewatchedwithnervousnessas the river continues to carry more and more water, a combination of runoff from farms upriver, increased precipitation and increased sedimentation. Their current prediction: The Mississippi River's rate of discharge - the amount of water flowing along its banks - could increase by as much as 60 per cent by the end of the century.

"I can't even imagine what that would mean," he said, after spending an August morning collecting sediment samples in the field. "This makes me really, really concerned."

Various scenarios he's mapped out from his research, including the buildup of sediment causing the Mississippi to shift course and join a neighbouring river, the Atchafalaya, have a doomsday feel to them and their implications - the unabated encroachment of salt water and larger floods - are all catastrophic.

And the billions that will be spent on trying to save land, or even rebuild it, is "money thrown down a deep hole," Mr.

Xu said. Even if there were a silver bullet, he says, competing interests - energy companies, political parties, fisherman and residents - make decisive action impossible.

"This is a fight against nature," he said.

"And it's really hard to fight against nature."

For government officials - and those who remain in communities along the river - a difficult, if not impossible, dilemma lingers: maintain levees that stop floods,ortakethemdowntoallowtheriver to rebuild the quickly disappearing land?

The bitter irony threading the twin crises - of land loss and flooding - is the fact that the genesis of problems are human interference in the river. By endeavouring to tame the waterway, the Corps of Engineers have inadvertently created a slew of new problems.

"As our engineering and technologies improved over time, I think we've come to believe that we don't exist within nature.

Instead, we feel that, in many cases, we exist above nature," said Matti Siemiatycki, director of the University of Toronto's school of cities.

As unsalvageable as the situation in Louisiana looks, it nonetheless provides a usefulsetofinstructionsforotherregions, as governments worldwide look to adapt to increasingly erratic natural resources pushed to the brink by climate change.

"Climate change and the extremes and thespeedatwhichtheseeventsnowcome on are really challenging our infrastructureandourabilitytoengineersolutions," Mr. Siemiatycki said.

In communities along the banks of the Mississippi, cities have begun to rethink their relationship to the river.

In Davenport, Iowa, officials have removed flood walls and levees, instead letting the river encroach further into the city. Any new construction has to be high elevation, letting the river run its course with reduced risk of flood damage.

Even in Canada, communities are revisiting their own natural resources.

The Toronto Region and Conservation Authority has ambitious plans to bring the Don River back to its more natural state, before it was contorted by city planners, in a billion-dollar project that will minimize flood risk for nearly 240 hectares of land at the mouth of the river.

In Quebec, where record floods devastated numerous communities this spring, new provincial rules give affected homeowners $100,000 as compensation for a damaged house - or $200,000 if they choose to move away from the river.

With a forced rethinking of how humans interact with natural resources, a much more holistic approach with neighbouring waterways can be attained, Mr.

Siemiatycki said.

Whileengineeringwillcontinuetohave akeyroleinfutureplanning,plannerswill need to think twice. Fights against nature aren't winnable; the only question is how - and when - to finally co-operate.

The author's reporting was made possible partly through a fellowship from the Institute for Journalism and Natural Resources.

Special to The Globe and Mail

SLIPPING AWAY

For decades, the coastline of Louisiana has slipped below the Gulf of Mexico. While the land loss is a combination of natural factors, including the subsidence of delta regions, both human interference in the river, as well as rising sea levels, have exacerbated the problem. Since the 1930s, Louisiana has lost nearly 5,000 square kilometres of land, through a combination of natural factors and human interference. If no action is taken, an estimated 10,300 sq. km. of coastline could be lost by 2050.

Associated Graphic

*2015 Rand Corp. analysis is based on model results for land loss from four future without-action projections developed for the 2012 Coastal Master Plan using 2010 as the base year

Ryan Lambert surveys new marsh growth with his dog, Logan. Mr. Lambert runs a fishing lodge in the town of Buras, La., an outpost south of New Orleans that is in one of the highest-risk areas in the state.

In a natural flood cycle, sediment helps to replace land lost to subsidence and sea-level rise. But the levees designed to control floods of the Mississippi River also prevent the land from being rebuilt. Here, sediment is seen spilling from a broken river barrier.

PHOTOS BY LEYLAND CECCO/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers spent decades on large and expensive infrastructure projects that sought to control the flow of the Mississippi, a crucial trade route. Ironically, the very infrastructure meant to prevent the river's natural flood cycles has played a key role in curbing the rebuilding of land.

Near New Orleans, a row of fishing cabins lies near quickly disappearing land. Some advocates have suggested breaking open sections of the levees to divert river water back to areas that need the sediment. But without levees, storm surges and widespread flooding would devastate cities such as New Orleans.

The extent of flooding is seen at a house near Vicksburg, Miss. Several water experts agree that the Mississippi River is growing larger and stronger, and it is only a matter of time before a large, cataclysmic disaster strikes.

Louisiana State University hydrology professor Yi Jun Xu says the billions that will be spent trying to save land, or even rebuild it, is 'money thrown down a deep hole,' and that even if there were a solution, competing interests would make decisive action impossible.


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The rise and fall of Alberto Salazar and the 'power' of his Nike Oregon Project
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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page S1

W hen Alberto Salazar launched the Nike Oregon Project in 2001 he had one simple goal: to do whatever it took to break the African stranglehold on distance running.

"It's like in war," Salazar once said of his approach to coaching.

"The soldier has to learn how to fight and do everything - be physically fit, be a one-man army. But then you try and equip him with every bit of top science - everything you can - to keep him alive. That's what we do."

Salazar had spent a lifetime trying to beat the Africans - through punishing workouts as a top American marathoner in the 1980s and bizarre experiments later as a coach of some of the world's best runners. His will to win was so strong that he once collapsed at the end of a race and was given last rites.

His big breakthrough came at the 2012 Olympics in London when two Nike Oregon Project runners, Mo Farah of Britain and Galen Rupp of the United States, took gold and silver, respectively, in the 10,000 metres. That ended years of dominance by Africans who had won all but one medal in the event since 1988. Soon athletes from all over, including Canada's Cam Levins, were flocking to the NOP's complex in Portland, Ore., to learn Salazar's secrets.

The glory didn't last long. Salazar's unorthodox training methods eventually caught up with him and on Sept. 30 the U.S.

Anti-Doping Agency slapped him and the NOP's medical adviser, Houston endocrinologist Jeffrey Brown, with a four-year ban after an arbitration panel found they had committed several doping violations. The USADA investigation had taken six years and it uncovered a host of dubious activities at the NOP, including widespread misuse of prescription drugs, a strange experiment involving testosterone and improper injections of a substance that eased muscle fatigue.

Salazar and Brown had "demonstrated that winning was more important than the health and well-being of the athletes they were sworn to protect," USADA chief executive Travis Tygart said.

The sanctions have rippled across the sports world. Nike closed the NOP last month and the company's chief executive, Mark Parker, stepped down to become executive chairman. The head of UK Athletics has been fired and the organization is probing its ties to Salazar.

This week, the World Anti-Doping Agency confirmed that it has launched an inquiry into the NOP and it's considering retesting some of the stored blood and urine samples of the club's runners.

The case has cast a dark shadow over the Oregon Project's athletes, even though none has tested positive for banned drugs or been accused of wrongdoing by the USADA. "There is no allegation against me. I've not done anything wrong," Farah told reporters last month. Levins, who spent three years at the NOP and left in 2017, was unavailable for comment but he has said that he was injured for most of his time with Salazar. "I have the utmost faith in Alberto and my former teammates that they're clean and have high morals," he told reporters in 2017.

Salazar said he was shocked by USADA's findings and plans to file an appeal at the Court of Arbitration for Sport. "I have always ensured the [world anti-doping code] is strictly followed. The Oregon Project has never and will never permit doping," he said in a statement. His supporters note that the sanctions pertain to relatively minor violations of procedure and don't involve any direct doping of athletes. Nike, too, is standing by Salazar and has insisted that Parker's resignation as CEO had nothing to do with the NOP case. The company added that it will "continue to support Alberto in his appeal, as a four-year suspension for someone who acted in good faith is wrong."

Salazar has been a divisive figure in track circles for years and the sanctions have been largely welcomed as a longoverdue punishment for someone who constantly bent the rules. "Salazar had become the apotheosis of a certain approach to sport, which is that what you should be doing is right up to the edge of the rules," said Alex Hutchinson, a Canadian journalist and former athlete who writes about the science of endurance and fitness, including for The Globe and Mail. "And that led him to do a lot of grey-area stuff, which is the kind of stuff that makes me and many, many other people uncomfortable."

He added that Salazar had also become a target for many people because of his association with Nike. "Salazar has come to stand in for a company that a lot of people feel is a bully and a force not necessarily for good," Hutchinson said.

Documents filed as part of the USADA action paint a picture of a driven coach whose win-at-all-costs mentality led him astray. The three-member panel of arbitrators said Salazar was not motivated by bad intentions and they marvelled at how meticulous he was at checking the rules with anti-doping officials, although he often looked for a way around them. They concluded that his desire to provide the best training possible "clouded his judgment in some instances, when his usual focus on the rules appears to have lapsed."

Salazar had always been someone who sought every possible advantage. He was among the first American athletes to train at high altitude in the 1970s and he later built a contraption he could use at home in Massachusetts to mimic the same scarcity of oxygen. He tried lotions used for racehorses to reduce muscle inflammation and he has acknowledged using testosterone briefly in 1991 when he was trying to revive his running career.

His innovations proved successful up to a point. He won the New York City Marathon three times in the 1980s. But he also suffered years of injuries, illness and a deep depression that led him to contemplate suicide. "I pushed myself as far as my body could go," he said in a lengthy article in 2015 when some allegations about the NOP first surfaced. "In fact, I trained and ran so hard it nearly killed me and I still suffer today the negative physical effects of my excessive training."

Through it all, Salazar has enjoyed the unwavering backing of Nike. The shoe giant sponsored him as an athlete and gave him a marketing job when his career finally ended in 1996. The company even put his name on a building at the company's headquarters in Eugene, Ore., in-between one named after golfer Tiger Woods and another one for basketball great Michael Jordan. When Salazar hatched the plan for the Oregon Project in 2001, after lamenting about the sorry state of U.S. distance running to a Nike executive, the company jumped in with millions of dollars. It also hired Salazar's two sons, Alex and Tony, to work at the NOP.

With Nike's deep pockets at the ready, Salazar was free to pursue his wildest ideas. He built an altitude house at the Nike complex in Portland and installed underwater treadmills, laser-therapy machines and supercold cryosaunas to help runners recover faster. With the help of the doctor, Brown, he put several athletes on massive doses of vitamin D, Testo Boost and thyroid medication in a vain attempt to increase their testosterone levels.

For many athletes, life at the NOP was a dream. They had access to Nike's vast resources, including research labs, state-ofthe-art equipment, a team of masseurs and financing for trips around the world to compete and train. Brown flew on the company's jet to the 2008 Olympics in Beijing and several athletes were paid US$200,000 a year or more by Nike plus bonuses. Many excelled, especially Farah, who went from a decent runner to a fourtime Olympic and six-time world champion. Levins, too, set the Canadian record for 10,000 metres in 2015 while training under Salazar.

The NOP quickly became known in track circles for its vast resources and stunning workload. It wasn't uncommon for NOP runners to do a workout after races while rivals looked on in amazement. "We thought, on the one side maybe these guys are getting those results because they're working really hard," recalled Canadian distance runner Reid Coolsaet. "And on the other hand, maybe they were able to work that hard because they were able to recover better than a normal human being."

The NOP group largely kept to themselves, following strict orders from Salazar not to discuss their training regime. Salazar worried constantly about competitors spiking water bottles or rubbing testosterone gel on the back of an NOP athlete so they would test positive. He ordered NOP runners to lock up their bottles and never high-five or touch anyone after a race. Salazar's fear was so strong that when Rupp mentioned that someone had slapped him on the back after a race, the coach immediately organized an experiment with his sons to see if a casual slap of testosterone gel could lead to a positive test.

It took several applications before Salazar was finally convinced that it couldn't.

Not everyone inside the NOP felt comfortable with Salazar's methods. Panic spread among some members of the group in 2012 after health officials issued a warning that the overuse of a nasal spray containing calcitonin, which is used to strengthen bones, could increase the risk of cancer. Many NOP athletes, including U.S. marathoner Dathan Ritzenhein, had been using the spray regularly on Salazar's advice that it would fend off stress fractures. "Is this some kind of joke?" Ritzenhein said in an e-mail to an NOP assistant coach after he ordered the runners to stop using the spray because of the cancer risk.

"I have been taking this for the last four years!" Another NOP runner, American Olympian Kara Goucher, became so concerned about the overuse of prescription drugs she reported it to the USADA and testified against Salazar during the arbitration hearing. "I was a part of a culture that was so manipulative and so controlling and so wrong," she told reporters last month. "Your entire life is dependent on the power of this brand."

For other NOP athletes the limit had come in 2011 when Salazar became obsessed with an energy drink from Britain called NutraMet, which claimed it could boost performance by 10 per cent. The key ingredient was L-carnitine, a natural substance found in many foods that can slow the depletion of glycogen in muscles, a key energy source, by increasing the amount of fat that's burned. Salazar called it the "greatest legal sports supplement ever" and he t bought up the company's initial supply. He also lobbied Nike executives to acquire NutraMet so that no other athletes could have access to it.

When he discovered that it would take six months of drinking NutraMet to show results, Salazar arranged for assistant coach Steve Magness to take the supplement intravenously to see if there would be an immediate impact. Magness agreed and his running improved instantly. Salazar was so excited he e-mailed the results to Parker and Lance Armstrong, the Nikesponsored cyclist who would later be banned for life for doping. "Lance, call me asap! We have tested it and it's amazing! You are the only athlete I'm going to tell the actual numbers to other than Galen Rupp. It's too incredible. All completely legal and natural," Salazar wrote. He soon had six NOP athletes, including Rupp, taking NutraMet intravenously. Later he would say the drink provided little benefit.

Magness and others worried about the legality of what they were doing. While Lcarnitine isn't banned by the USADA, it can only be administered in maximum doses of 50 millilitres every six hours. Magness had received one litre and he told the USADA that he believed the athletes had also received doses above the threshold.

During the arbitration hearing Salazar insisted that he followed the doping rules when giving the supplement to the athletes. But the panel found that Salazar and Brown had tampered with records and disguised how much the runners had received.

It's unclear when Salazar's appeal will be heard or if there will be any further fallout from the USADA's revelations or the WADA investigation. But some athletes, such as Coolsaet, aren't sure that this will be the end of the 61-year-old Salazar.

"I really don't know," Coolsaet said. He paused and added: "I hope it would be the end of his coaching career but I wouldn't be surprised if he came back."

Associated Graphic

Nike Oregon Project runners Mo Farah of Britain and Galen Rupp of the U.S. win gold and silver, respectively, in the 10,000 metres at the 2012 Olympics in London. It marked a breakthrough for coach Alberto Salazar, as African athletes had won all but one medal in the event since 1988. 'I've not done anything wrong,' Farah told reporters last month, as Nike closed the NOP.

OLIVIER MORIN/AFP VIA GETTY IMAGES


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Have military medics gotten their due?
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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page O5

Ted Barris is an award-winning journalist, broadcaster and author whose books include Dam Busters: Canadian Airmen and the Secret Raid Against Nazi Germany and, most recently, Rush to Danger: Medics in the Line of Fire.

Kevin Patterson is a specialist in internal medicine and author whose books include News from the Red Desert and Outside the Wire: The War in Afghanistan in the Words of Its Participants.

They held their discussion over e-mail in October and November.

TED BARRIS: In the course of writing Rush to Danger, I reflected on the media and popculture mythology to which I was exposed as an adolescent in the 1950s and 60s. I grew up watching war-movie classics and, as a university student, watched the sitcom M*A*S*H, about medical teams in the Korean War. But I've always found myself driven to read more, dig deeper, search further for the real figures that might have motivated the creators to build such iconic wartime characters. And they're there. As an example, I was struck by the doctor Major Clipton, played by James Donald, in The Bridge on the River Kwai. In the movie, Clipton does his best to keep malnourished, disease-ridden and injured POWs alive, while Colonel Nicholson, played by Alec Guinness, seems bent on building the Japanese commandant's railway bridge, no matter how many of his fellow POWs it takes. In fact, the real doctor saving lives in the face of the Japanese using Allied prisoners as forced labour on the Siam-to-Burma railway was a Canadian: Dr. Jacob Markowitz. And Dr. Markowitz's experimental medicine - using exclusively makeshift utensils and jungle remedies - ends up being even more fantastic than any Hollywood screenwriter's imagination.

He performed 3,800 transfusions, 7,000 procedures and probably saved more than 5,000 men from certain death during the railway's murderous construction in the Second World War.

Truth is stranger than fiction.

KEVIN PATTERSON: I agree, it is surprising how rarely military medics have been depicted in detail in literature and in film. In the 18 years of war that have followed 9/11, we have seen many treatments of snipers, for instance - American Sniper was the highest grossing film in 2014 [in the United States].

But that role - killing from a distance - is so much less heroic. Medics are more exposed to danger, and their role, treating both friendly and injured combatants, is more complicated and nuanced. Is it because filmmakers and writers are preoccupied with the narrative power of death-dealing?

A close examination of the medic's role will necessarily depict the horror of war, and perhaps filmmakers are uncomfortable with that. But one would think that less bellicose artists would find this a natural and fascinating topic.

U.S. Third Army fighting under similarly bitter conditions in the Battle of the Bulge, as the Allies pushed the Germans back through the Ardennes and past the former Siegfried Line inside Germany. The episode accurately showed actor Shane Taylor (as medic Roe) nearly freezing to death, with no winter clothing or lined boots for himself or his fellow medics, and worse, meagre medical supplies for his wounded - scrounging for dressing packs, scissors, drugs and even keeping syrettes of morphine from freezing by wedging them in his armpits. More than any other depiction of army medics, I related to that one. It was my father's story in frigid technicolour, dealing with what he called "mass cals" (massive casualties) and little to treat them with but common-sense medicine.

PATTERSON: I think you're on to something important when you emphasize how Band of Brothers and some other depictions forefront the essential and defining aspect of war - suffering. The cinematography in the opening minutes of Saving Private Ryan - also made before 9/11 - shocked viewers with its muted colours and its frank unsparing examination of agony. Giovanni Ribisi's character, medic Wade, was one of that film's principal characters. Medics are the first and most intimate observers of the worst thing humans do to one another, and any narrative lens that is interested in the horror of war will tend to dwell on their point of view. Other films that gave prominent roles to medics included 2001's Black Hawk Down and We Were Soldiers, which was released in 2002, but written before 9/11.

It seems to me that depictions of war made after 9/11, especially in the first years of the war, were more likely to be drawn to ideas of righteous revenge. Here, we've mostly been discussing films, though. Are there novels and non-fiction works you can recommend to readers interested in the complex role of military medics? What secondary sources moved you, as you were preparing to write your book?

BARRIS: Probably because military medicine experienced such radical change, but also because medics, nurses and others wrote down what they saw on or near battlefields so vividly at Bull Run, Fredericksburg and Gettysburg, journals from the U.S. Civil War proved among the most striking to me.

Once read, I can't ever erase such views of carnage as that of former journalist, and later army commander, Carl Schurz. He noted in his Reminiscences (1863) "stretchers coming in dreadful procession" and surgeons with rolled up sleeves, bloodstained aprons and "knives not seldom held between their teeth" and the "beseeching eyes of the dying boy who recognized me, says with broken voice, 'Oh, General! Can you not do something for me?' And I can do nothing but stroke his hands and utter some words of courage and hope, which I do not believe myself." But on the other hand I was attracted to the memoirs of Jonathan Letterman, the Pennsylvania doctor-turned-medical-officer who drags the army brass kicking and screaming into officially accepting field ambulances, real surgeons (not quacks), hygiene; and behind the lines, hospitals with stewards, nurses and cooks to attend the wounded.

Some called him a "medical dictator" for his unflinching directives to Union Army strategists who demanded ammo over ambulances, but as the Army of the Potomac's chief medical officer, Letterman is credited with changing "a vast sea of misery" into medical treatment of wounded "at least equal to the best of the fighting men in gallantry." His impact on military medicine was the 19th-century equivalent of penicillin, or the Black Hawk medivac helicopter in Iraq and Afghanistan.

PATTERSON: Your mention of helicopter evacuation for combat casualties is interesting. This has made a dramatic difference in survival rates in the combat injured. This began in Vietnam, but the technique was more fully developed in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Medics played a very important role, too, in the recent improvements in outcomes by providing early stabilization and resuscitation, including even surgical procedures on the battlefield such as chest tube placement and tracheostomies prior to evacuation. I saw this done regularly in Afghanistan, but I've never seen such techniques delegated to nonphysicians in the civilian sphere. The stereotype of military culture is that it is intensely hierarchical and conservative, but in this instance it seems less so than civilian medical culture, where physicians keep these skill sets largely to themselves. More broadly, the position of the medic/medical assistant/corpsman doesn't really have an analogue at all in civilian life. Physician assistants and EMTs in civilian life do not operate with the same autonomy as their military counterparts. Part of this is pure pragmatism - the volume of trauma seen in war dwarfs that in civilian life. But I wonder if there may be inspiration to be found in the military experience for making health-care hierarchies more horizontal in the broader world. Are you aware of medics who have advocated for this, upon leaving the military? Did you find that medics often remained in health care after finishing their service?

BARRIS: Your point about helicopter evacuation and its impact on survival rates among combat casualties is a vital one. Somewhere in my research about medical practice during the Korean War, I unearthed statistics to support your thesis. Mortality rates during the Korean War were 34 per 1,000 wounded; it had been 66 per 1,000 in the Second World War. That statisticians went on to say that a wounded soldier in Korea benefited from greater accessibility to air-evacuation transportation, the advent of better medication - especially antibiotics - and quicker access to surgical and emergency treatment. Those advancements on the battlefield are borne out in an interview I conducted with Dan Harden, a United States Air Force veteran of military deployments to to Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan. During 122 different medieval missions overseas, Major Harden's emergency ward was the back of a Black Hawk helicopter, where both he and his wounded patient were harnessed into position; and as Harden attended his wounded with oxygen, suction, ventilation, intubation, intravenous or transfusion, the chopper was flying at 140 miles an hour across the desert to deliver Harden's patient to a contingency operating base for life-saving surgery.

Harden told me, "If a wounded soldier was alive after injury, and a medic arrived in that critical time, a patient had a 97-percent chance of survival." I can think of field ambulance medics at Ypres losing up to 5,000 in the German chlorine-gas attacks of April, 1915, or the medical officers in Japanese POW compounds along the so-called Death Railway in the jungles of Burma where up to 4,000 POWs died of disease, injury or exhaustion, or the 916 Canadians that Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps medics could not save on the beaches of Dieppe in August, 1942. Those medics would have sacrificed everything to be able to enjoy a 97-per-cent survival rate among their wounded. But small-box ventilators (gas masks), anti-bacterial drugs and medevac choppers weren't around to deliver such miracles then.

PATTERSON: These successes in improving the survival rates among the (Western and Allied) war wounded are probably underappreciated. And the refinements in trauma care in war have spread to the civilian sector, not just in the most recent wars, but for a century now. Nevertheless, to describe the effect of war, especially on health, in any sort of positive sense is uncomfortable.

The excess mortality - including knock-on effects - in Iraq following the invasion may have been almost seven hundred thousand, according to the British medical journal The Lancet. These wars have been the worst decision the West has made in the past half-century. That said, military medics are in an interesting position. When I was a medical officer, we were taught that our role was to preserve the operational capability of the military. Simply put, soldiers are more likely to fight aggressively if they see that they will be cared for, once wounded.

BARRIS: I have one last thought on the point about medics and their service being underappreciated. I think even the medics themselves felt inadequate. More often than not, they took the casualty rates extremely hard. With seemingly very little positive in the aftermath of a battle, medics grasped at whatever small victories they could rationalize. Two such medical officers - Laurence Alexander with the Calgary Tanks, and Wesley Clare with Royal Hamilton Light Infantry - went into beaches of Dieppe on Aug. 19, 1942 - of 4,963 Canadians in action at Dieppe, 3,367 were killed, wounded or taken prisoner. Neither Alexander nor Clare managed to get off the beach. In fact, Alexander never left the tank landing craft bringing his medical crew and tank crews ashore; he spent the entire morning dashing from one wounded case to another all aboard the landing craft. And in the end, of his original assault group of 117 military men and 13 naval men, he managed to save but 30 soldiers and three navy personnel. Meanwhile, Clare gathered the wounded and dying RHLI troops in the lee of another bombed out landing craft just up from the surf. He'd been unable to save 197 of his regimental brothers, but chose to surrender the remaining handful, including himself, to ensure that at least a few survived the slaughter. He spent the rest of the war with those he'd saved in German POW camps in occupied Europe. And the Calgary Tankers whom Alexander saved never forgot him, either. When Doc Alexander returned to Alberta after the war, the veterans who returned with him made it their business to seek the doctor out to deliver their children and be their family doctor.

Small but meaningful thanks for saving them from the "nine bloodiest hours in Canadian military history" at Dieppe.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY LUIS MAZON


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'LIKE A MOVIE': CHINA'S STAGED STREET SCENES
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In Xinjiang, state authorities are said to screen and pay people to play roles for visiting delegations, Nathan VanderKlippe reports
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Tuesday, November 5, 2019 – Page A1

One day last October, eight local officials entered Zumuret Dawut's home in Urumqi, the regional capital of northwestern China's Xinjiang region. They came to ask her elderly father to pray - and they promised to pay.

They said, "We will give you 20 renminbi for each time you pray," Ms. Dawut recalled in an interview.

"You will need to pray five times tomorrow. So we will give you 100 renminbi" - about $18.50.

Her 79-year-old father was puzzled. He had long since stopped attending the local mosque out of fear the authorities would see his religious observance as a sign of radicalization and place him in an indoctrination centre, as the government has done with hundreds of thousands of Muslims in the region. The mosque was considered closed.

But the officials and police said an inspection tour was being arranged that would bring dignitaries from around the world to Urumqi and they wanted the visitors to see people praying.

It amounted to staging a show, Ms. Dawut said, to create the illusion of a free and open society - part of a campaign, she and others said, of showing visitors orchestrated scenes of people in peaceful religious observance.

To quell international anxieties about Xinjiang, one of China's most important assets has been government loyalists who have defended the indoctrination centres and, according to people interviewed by The Globe and Mail, have staged intricately managed scenes filled with pedestrians, street vendors and drivers played by people - police officers, teachers, retirees - who have been screened by the authorities and assigned roles.

Ms. Dawut watched as the officials taught herfather,aformerworkerattheBureauof Non-ferrous Metal Industry, what to say if hewasaskedquestions.Hewastorespond, "We are not prohibited from praying" or "We are not prohibited from entering the mosque."

Last fall marked an important moment forChina'santi-radicalizationcampaignin Xinjiang, which is home to a large Muslim population of ethnic Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Hui and others. Before then, Chinese officialshaddeniedreportsthattheyhadconstructedanetworkofprison-likere-education centres dedicated to the forced indoctrinationofMuslims.

But on Oct. 16, 2018, China's state-run Xinhua news agency published a lengthy interview with Shohrat Zakir, chairman of the Government of Xinjiang Uygur AutonomousRegion.HesaidtheChinesegovernment, faced with "complex and grave circumstancesaswellasthepressinganti-terrorism desire of the people," had created a "vocational education and training programaccordingtothelaw"designedto"get ridoftheenvironmentandsoilthatbreeds terrorism and religious extremism and stop violent terrorist activities from happening."

Withthatinterview,Chinabeganalengthy process to counter critics who have labelled the Xinjiang indoctrination centres "concentration camps," dedicated to expungingreligiousbeliefsandethniccultural identity, and replacing them with Communist Party ideology and adherence to Chinese President Xi Jinping. More than a million people have been placed in such centres, according to U.S. government estimates.

Mr.Zakir,however,likened the centres to "boarding schools" that offered free Mandarin language instructionandtraininginvocationalskillsthatwould"helptrainees find employment." But that was only the beginning.

In the months that followed, localofficialshaveguidednumerous groups through Xinjiang - journalists and diplomats from dozens of countries, as well as Chinese foreign-affairsofficialsposted aroundtheworld-toseeforthemselves.

What unfolds when visitors arrive is "like a movie," said a Uyghur woman from Ghulja,knowninChineseasYili,acitynear theborderwithKazakhstanthathasbeena major nexus of the Xinjiang political indoctrinationeffort.ThewomanlivesinEurope, but The Globe is not disclosing her nameoutofconcernforretributionagainst herfamilymembersstillinXinjiang.

She described watching a friend sitting in her living room and memorizing 50 assigned questions and responses. The friend, a Chinese-language teacher, had been asked "to perform as a civilian walking in the street" for a coming inspection visit,thewomansaid.

Accordingtothepaperstheteacherwas studying, if asked where local centres for political indoctrination and skills training could be found, she was to reply: "I do not knowthelocation."

Another authorized response said: "There are no camps and only one school where they provide vocational skills and training,"thewomanrecalled.

Her friend was frustrated because she was being forced to memorize responses sheconsidereduntrue,thewomansaid.

And the teacher was not the only one preparingforavisit.Friendsofthewoman in the local police force were also rehearsing, dressing as civilians and preparing to drivebusesandtaxis,andbuyandsellvegetablesfromstreetsidevendors.Ifaforeign visitor arrived, the street would look normal.

Police friends described similar scenes toMs.Dawut."Theyappointedpeopletogo on the street and pretend to be vegetable vendors, or shop owners or bus drivers.

These are all characters that they arranged," she said. Police officers, too, pretended"tobecouplesoutshopping."

Ms. Dawut left China in January and is now in the United States. Last month, she testified on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly about her time inare-educationcentrewhere,shealleged, she suffered ugly mistreatment. Her accounthasbeenraisedbeforeasubcommittee of the U.S. Senate foreign-relations committee. Chinese authorities have disputedherstoryandavideohassurfacedof her brother denying she spent time in one of the centres. Ms. Dawut believes he was coerced.

To buttress her account to The Globe, she provided the names of two police officers who visited her father to order him to the mosque to pray. The person who answeredthephoneatalocalpolicestationin Urumqi confirmed that men with those namesworkedthere,butasuperiorofficer then hung up when The Globe sought to askquestionsabouttheirwork.

Another account of such staging comes from a Westerner who has lived in Urumqi andrecalledlocalpoliceofficerscomplaining about being ordered to drive taxis duringconferencesthatbroughtinlargenumbersofforeigners.TheWesternerisnotbeingidentifiedbyTheGlobetoavoidendangeringtheirfriendsinXinjiang.

Last December, the Uyghur service of Radio Free Asia reported that a businessman from Ghulja had described concerted effortsinthatcitytopreparefor"aninspection team coming soon," including doorto-door visits by officials who would teach people "what to say." Those unwilling to comply were told they would have "three generations of their family blacklisted."

A former Chinese state media worker also told The Globe it was not uncommon forlocalpropagandaauthorities to arrange for government workers to act as civilians at important events. AfterspeakingwithTheGlobe, police interrogated the man for hours, asking him questionsthatindicatedtheyhad a recording of the telephone interview.

Beijing's efforts in Xinjiang, however, have not always succeeded in convincing others that indoctrination facilities are akin to boarding schools.

Albanian-Canadian journalist Olsi Jazexhi travelledtoXinjianginAugustonanall-expenses-paid trip funded by Chinese authorities. A vocal critic of the U.S., he expected to agree with China's account of its treatment of Muslims. In Xinjiang, however,hecametobelievelocalauthoritieswere shadingthetruth.

"They want to give to the world the impression that people here are well fed, are happy with the Communist government, and are singing and dancing and we are all brotherandsisters,"hesaid.Buttheofficial guides"wereplayingwithus.Theywanted us to reveal to the world a fake story," he said."Everythingwasstaged."

For example, he said, he asked Uyghur detainees: "Do you still believe in Allah?" Theyrespondedthattheyhadrejectedreligion in favour of belief in science and the Communist Party. "This shocked me very much," Mr. Jazexhi said. "I saw from their eyes they were horrified and scared. They were constantly looking at their Chinese teachers for guidance and to check if their answerswerecorrect.

"Withthesecamps,whattheyaredoing is they are trying to forcefully and very quickly assimilate the Uyghurs into Han Chinese."

Others have come to much different conclusions. In March, the Council of Foreign Ministers under the Organization of IslamicCo-operation,afteravisittoChina, adopted a resolution that "commends the efforts of the People's Republic of China in providingcaretoitsMuslimcitizens."

Kadambini Sharma, an anchor and foreign-affairs correspondent for India's NDTV,wasonthesametripwithMr.Jazexhi. She was struck by the state financial investment she witnessed in Xinjiang - part of a campaign that has been faulted for bulldozingculturalrelics.

But, Ms. Sharma said in an interview, "there is new construction going on, houses - freebies, everything. Everything youcanthinkoftoluresomeonebackfrom what you think is not right, it's happening there." And, she said, "these kids who are there, they see the folly of their ways, and most say they don't believe in religionanymore.ThatissomethingIfindveryinteresting."

Still, she was left wondering: Will that religious rejectionremain"evenwhenthey have left those vocational trainingcentres?" Chinese media have reported other favourable comments from visiting delegations. In January, a Kazakh diplomat told Xinhua, ... which paraphrased his comments, that "the Chinese government and regional government in Xinjiang have created good conditions for trainees, and they haverichfoodaswellastime forsports.

"The vocational education and training centres in Xinjiang are not 'concentration camps,' as described by some Western media, but schools to help those influenced by extreme thoughts to eliminate the harmful thoughts and learn vocational skills,"LeelaManiPaudyal,Nepal'sambassadortoChina,saidduringavisitinAugust.

"Every student I saw here is happy. They learn not only laws and regulations, Standard Chinese, but also professional skills, which I believe will give them an edge to adapttothesocietyaftergraduation."

Xinjiang authorities began to detain large numbers of Muslims in 2017, placing someinjail-likefacilitiessurroundedbyhighwallsandrazorwire.Theconditionswere so grim that some attempted suicide, according to accounts from former detainees.

But some time between October and December last year, the fences and razor wire disappeared from the Kashgar Vocational Education Centre, one of the facilities that has welcomed numerous delegations. What successivevisitorsseeisoften surprisinglysimilar.Videoreviewed by The Globe shows that, since January, multiple delegations of foreign correspondents, including Mr. Jazexhi,havebeentakentothe same room with the same teacher and what appears to be at least one of the same detainees dressed in the same distinctive clothing - thatofadancer.

Another facility, the Wensu County Vocational Training Centre, is relatively new, with satellite imagery showing that construction was completed in August or September, 2018, according to an analysis per-

formed for The Globe by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Researchers at the institute have identified four places in Wensuthattheybelieveareusedforindoctrination and training. The one visited by journalists, including Mr. Jazexhi in August,appearstobethesmallest and least institutional in appearance.

One Xinjiang official told Mr. Jazexhi that about 500,000 people have been placed in 68 internment camps, a figure Chinese officials have not made public before (The Globe verified his account with another c journalist who was on the trip). But he is not sure that numberisreliable.

In Urumqi, meanwhile, one Western researcher photographed police taking e away Uyghur dancers after a performance at the Grand Bazaar, one of the region's central tourist attractions, a even though authorities s haveuseddanceasademonstration of contentment and unityintheregion.

"This is not what dance troupes do - getting into police cars without licence plates," said Hanna Burdorf, a Newcastle University PhD student researching language education for Uyghur children in Xinjiang. She shared her photos with The Globe.

"In my opinion, this means that these dancersarebeingcontrolledbythegovernment,"shesaid.

Ms. Burdorf has been to Xinjiang three times in the past 18 months, most recently late this summer. What she found on her most recent trip is that the heavy security presence across the region had fallen considerably from view. In Urumqi, armoured police vehicles no longer patrolled streets at a walking pace, sirens blaring. Security checks were noticeably less strict.

It looked as if "a kind of normality had returned to Urumqi,"shewroteinanarticleabouttheexperience.

In Kashgar, surveillance cameras have been removed from inside the Id Kah mosque, China's largest, as it is transformed into a tourist attraction. The harsh contours of an invasive surveillance state may no longer be needed, Ms. Burdorf said, becausethepressureofthepast few years has left a lingering fear that "has penetrated people'smindssodeeplythat itworksasameansofcontrol even with less visible means of surveillance." One taxi driver said he would be "in really big trouble"ifhekeptacoinfromanArabcountry thatsheaccidentallygavehim.

"InthisplaydirectedbyChina,Xinjiang hasjustswitchedtoaprettierstageset,"she wrote.

Associated Graphic

Pedestrians pass a mosque in Urumqi, the regional capital of China's Xinjiang region, in September.

HECTOR RETAMAL/AFP VIA GETTY IMAGES

Above: A Uyghur woman, centre, enters a bazaar in China's northwest Xinjiang region in May. Multiple sources have told The Globe and Mail that China stages intricately managed scenes in the region, filled with pedestrians, street vendors and drivers played by preapproved residents, to quell international anxieties about Muslim indoctrination centres.

Left: A woman walks below surveillance cameras in Akto, in the Xinjiang region, in June. Hanna Burdorf, a Newcastle University PhD student researching in Xinjiang, says that through the pressure it has exerted over the past few years, China is now able to maintain control even as it strips away some of its most visible means of surveillance. PHOTOS BY GREG BAKER/ AFP/GETTY IMAGES

A screen shows images of Chinese President Xi Jinping in Kashgar in June. Critics say Xinjiang's indoctrination centres are dedicated to expunging religious beliefs and ethnic cultural identity and replacing them with devotion to the Communist Party.

A propaganda painting depicts a hammer squashing terrorists on the wall of a military hospital near Kashgar. China maintains that its re-education centres are meant to 'get rid of the environment and soil that breeds terrorism and religious extremism.'

Uyghur men walk toward Kashgar's Id Kah mosque before Eid al-Fitr prayers in June. Surveillance cameras were recently removed from inside the mosque - China's largest - as it is transformed into a tourist attraction.

The Chinese flag flies behind razor wire at a housing compound near Kashgar, in the Xinjiang region. Authorities began detaining large numbers of Muslims in 2017, placing some in jail-like facilities surrounded by similarly imposing barriers.


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, November 12, 2019 – Page B16

J. LAVERNE BOND (née McConkey) On November 6, 2019, at age 99, Laverne, loving mother of Tom and his wife Lynda, and Scott and his wife Debbie, and cherished grandmother of Emily, Chris, Alison and Peter was reunited with her late husband Alfred Bond, who passed away in 1999. Laverne had a sharp mind but she had become very frail over the past year. Despite her frailty, she was determined to live on her own. She was fiercely independent, creative, embraced life and found humour to the end.

Laverne will be deeply missed by her family but will continue to positively influence all of our lives.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor Street W, at Windermere, east of the Jane subway, on Friday November 15, 2019 from 10 a.m. until time of the funeral service in the chapel at 11 a.m. If desired, donations may be made to Children's Wish Foundation of Canada.

GARY JOSEPH BRUNER April 28, 1946 November 8, 2019 It is with deep sadness we announce that Gary Bruner slipped away into eternity surrounded by his loved ones, after a three year battle with colon cancer. Gary fought to live longer but the monster that is cancer would not relent.

Gary was born in Toronto, practiced law for over 40 years and enthusiastically travelled the world. He lived life to the fullest and will be missed by his family, colleagues, and numerous friends worldwide. Gary was the loving husband of Aleksandra Spalvins and the devoted father to three children, Barry (Liat) of Tel Aviv, Cory (Dayna) of Toronto and Sondi (Timothy Harris) of Vancouver. Gary was the proud grandfather of Mason, Leah, Nolan and Noam. He also leaves his first wife, Barbara Citron, the mother of his children. Gary will be sadly missed by his siblings, Harvey (Rosemary) and Debbi (James Wallace); nieces, Katie, Emily and Nicole; and nephew, Kevin. He is fondly remembered by his good friend, John Lister. Gary was predeceased by his parents, Norman and Anne Bruner.

Gary was the perfect child.

During his formative years, he was often at the top of his class. After school Gary would help his father at the family convenience store. He was responsible and could always be counted on to do the right thing. Gary obtained a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the University of Toronto and with the flip of a coin decided to continue his education at York University where he studied law.

If there was one thing that Gary loved more than the art of law, it was the joy of travel.

On their holidays together, Gary and Aleks gallivanted around the world. They visited a multitude of countries and saw sites that most people only read about in books. The friendships they formed were lasting. The most memorable highlights, however, were the two six month cruises that Gary took around the world in both directions. He savoured every moment.

Gary was pragmatic and realistic as well as being a thoughtful and kind person.

He loved music especially the Beatles and Motown, and in particular the tunes of Smokey Robinson. Gary will be remembered for his integrity, his voice of reason, his sense of humour and for always offering cup of cappuccino. He will be missed.

Heartfelt thanks to the dedicated and incredibly compassionate team at Sunnybrook Hospital. Their humanity is an example to us all.

Following the private cremation at Mount Pleasant Cemetery on Wednesday, November 13, 2019, friends and family are invited to a celebration of Gary's life at his home, 165 Danforth Avenue at 3:30 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations in Gary's memory may be made to the Sunnybrook Foundation, Odette Cancer Centre.

STEFANIA HURKO (nee Deychakivska) 1924 - 2019 Stefa was a lively, creative soul, engaged and inspired by her deep love of her Ukrainian culture.

Her children, Marijka, Andrew (Olenka), and Roman (Carmen) will miss her spark. Husband, Eugene, predeceased her in 1979.

Born in the ancient village of Yamnytsia in western Ukraine, Stefa's early life was happily embedded in a strong patriotic family, and rich cultural traditions that were the wellsprings of her long life. But her budding adulthood was marked by war, the terror of Bolshevik and Nazi occupation, and flight for survival across continents.

Freedom of spirit, and a belief that beauty can save the world, nourished her through harrowing struggles in wartime Europe, and immigration to Australia and finally Canada.

Stefa finished pedagogical studies in Ukraine, and worked briefly as a teacher until the outbreak of the Second World War. Amid the shifting borders and front lines, she joined the political movement for the independence of a free Ukraine.

She spent 1941-42 in German occupied eastern Ukraine as a member of the underground "pokhidny hrupy" to build support for the independence project. From 1944-1947 she was a courier for the Ukraine Supreme Liberation Council's (UHVR) foreign delegation in western Europe.

She would see that dream fulfilled only in 1991 when Ukraine declared independence.

After the war, Stefa found herself in a Displaced Person (DP) camp in the American zone of Germany, where she married Eugene. In 1949 they emigrated by ship to Australia and settled in Adelaide; then with two young children in tow, immigrated again in 1956 to Canada where their third child was born, and Stefa worked at the University of Toronto library until her retirement.

Stefa began writing poetry at an early age, and was captivated to the core by the great poet Taras Shevchenko, whose words she knew by heart to the end of her days.

During sleepless nights, she often burned the midnight oil after a hard day's work, pouring to paper her painful emotions, and spiritual insights. We are grateful now to have this gift, her body of poetry, and the thousand songs she seeded into our hearts for our own journey through life.

Stefa's lyrical poetry was first published in 1962 in the Ukrainian Canadian press, and collections followed over the decades. She also wrote plays, and political satire. Her creative work is represented in the Anthology of Ukrainian Poetry in Canada.

She was an active and engaged member of the literary Ukrainian community in Toronto, and an ardent supporter of human rights campaigns to free political prisoners in the Soviet Union.

In 1991 Stefa was a volunteer worker in Kyiv, where she translated English and French documents for the cultural commission of Ukraine's new parliament.

Our family is grateful to all of Stefa's fine caregivers; the nurses and doctors at Humber River Hospital, and the palliative team at St. Joseph's Hospital in Toronto.

Mama, we will always remember "slukhajte tyshu" (listen to the silence) youtube.com/watch?v=xMsdc1SZy1U Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W., at Windermere, east of Jane subway from 6-9 p.m.

Wednesday. Panakhydia will take place at 7:30 p.m. Funeral Rite will be held at St. Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic Church, 4 Bellwoods Ave., on Thursday, November 14, 2019 at 8:30 a.m. Interment Park Lawn Cemetery.

MARIAN DRYDEN PATON (née Grierson) Born in Guelph, Ontario March 26, 1928, died November 9, 2019 in Ottawa.

Predeceased by her husband of almost 65 years, David S.

Paton and her youngest son, Gordon. Survived by her sons, David G. Paton of Ottawa (Susan Padmos) and John G. Paton of Sterling Forest, New York (Holly Holderman) and grandchildren Crysler Paton (Daniel Ludwin), Garnet Paton (Samantha Martin) and Norah Paton. Her great-grandson Gil Ludwin gave her much joy in her final months. She will be missed by her sister Jean Hillis (Don Hillis), her sister-inlaw Marion Paton and her nieces and nephew; Dawn and Leslie Benson, Jennifer and Peter Hillis.

Marian grew up in Guelph and lived most of her life in Toronto and Mississauga. She loved animals; her cats provided her with great comfort. She was a gifted rug hooker - her award winning rugs are truly works of art.

Many happy days were spent at the cottage on Lake of Bays. In retirement Marian and Dave realized their dream of an old stone house and moved to Merrickville.. With the onset of Marian's dementia, they left their beloved Stonecroft Cottage, moving to Manotick Place and then Park Place in Ottawa.

Many thanks to her caregivers and the staff at Park Place where she was treated with compassion and respect in her final months. Donations in her memory may be made to the Alzheimer's Society or your local Humane Society.

JOANNE STEINBERG Peacefully, Joanne Steinberg (nee Pascoe), passed away at her Toronto home on Sunday, November 10, 2019, after a courageous battle with cancer.

Joey was an inspiration to all who met her, and a beacon of strength to her family, as well as to her extended close circle of friends.

Adored wife of Michael, mother and mother-in-law of Hayley, and Daniel and Diana, and cherished grandmother to Damon and Romy. Beloved daughter of Eve and the late Dr. William Pascoe, sister and sister-in law to Lynda and Jonas Prince, Lawrence Steinberg, and Debbie and Peter Aronstam. Beloved aunt, cousin and friend. Joey graduated with a Bachelor of Applied Arts from Ryerson. She worked commercially in the field of Food Sciences before joining her father in his medical practice as his full time receptionist, a labour of love for her for many years. She continued working as a medical receptionist, and eventually she became her husband Michael's bookkeeper. Her artistic and culinary talents were well known and were demonstrated in numerous endeavours.

She pursued various artistic activities and businesses (painted sweatshirts, stencilled pots and pot planters). Joey was known far and wide for her cooking and baking, especially her coconut birthday cakes and Score bar cookies. She had an extensive circle of friends, and was always happy to help her friends with their Simchas. She made time for volunteer work with charities like Meals on Wheels, Out of the Cold, and the Canadian Cancer Society, and was an avid tennis, golf and bridge player. Our family appreciates the loving care provided to Joey by the doctors and nurses from Princess Margaret Hospital, her family doctor and dear friend Dr. Debra Birnbaum, her dedicated palliative care workers from the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care, and all of her devoted and supportive friends. We also wish to thank Joey's primary caregivers, Eden and Gloria, especially Eden who cared for her for several years with love and compassion, as well as her long standing trainer and good friend Diane.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Tuesday, November 12, 2019 at 12:30 p.m. Interment in the Holy Blossom Temple section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Donations in honour of Joanne's memory are welcome at The Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation, (416) 946- 6560 or the Dr. William Pascoe Medical Education Fund at the Baycrest Foundation, 416-785-2875.

PETER STRUCKEN Born in Bonn, Germany on January 3, 1933 and died in Oakville on November 8, 2019.

"Tampa", as he was known to his grandchildren, died peacefully at Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital, surrounded by his loving family. He is survived by his loving wife Heather, sister Marion Hahn, children Lisa (Hugh Kerr), Chris, and Emma (John Castelhano), and grandchildren Liam, Fraser, Julia, Mathias and Danielle.

Peter spent his business career as Export Sales Manager at Stelco, in Canada, England and Switzerland.

While travelling the world, he developed a taste for good food and wine, which he generously shared with family and friends. Peter had a wonderful, slightly off-colour, British sense of humour, and loved a good joke. His interesting "Tampa-isms" that we all use on a daily basis will keep him in our hearts forever. Please join us for a celebration of Peter's life at Oakview Funeral Home, 56 Lakeshore Road West, Oakville, on Friday, November 15, 2019, from 1 p.m. to 3:30 p.m., with remembrance speeches at 2 p.m. Refreshments will be served throughout. In lieu of flowers, please consider donating to a charity of your choice.

Online condolences may be left at oakviewfuneral.ca


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ONTARIO PROFILES
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Friday, November 8, 2019 – Page E7

Algoma University Sault Ste. Marie, Brampton, Timmins Tuition and fees: $7,332.04 Undergraduate students: 1,372 Undergraduate graduation rate: 52 per cent, based on a six-year rate Average debt at graduation: $16,197 With its main campus situated on the site of a former residential school, Algoma University has a special mission to cultivate crosscultural learning between Indigenous and other communities, which is based on Anishinaabe values. The small university offers more than 20 programs, but since it doesn't have any graduate degrees, undergraduate students are able to jump in on faculty research projects.

Affordability: $ Experience: ++ Brock University St. Catharines (main), Hamilton Tuition and fees: $6,675.75 Undergraduate students: 16,566 Undergraduate graduation rate: 69.1 per cent, based on a six-year rate Average debt at graduation: $15,926 Located in the historic Niagara region, Brock is a mid-sized university with more than 19,000 students in seven faculties. In addition to the degree programs, BrockU provides more than 40 coop programs, in which 15 per cent of full-time students participate, as well as other opportunities to engage with the community beyond academics. Outside of class, students can cheer on the Brock Badgers and get involved in a variety of clubs and extracurricular activities.

Affordability: $ Experience: ++ Carleton University Ottawa Tuition and fees: $7,427.65 Undergraduate students: 27,152 Undergraduate graduation rate: 69 per cent, based on a seven-year rate Average debt at graduation: $17,130 Carleton University is located on Algonquin territory, on an official UNESCO World Heritage Site in Canada's capital city. Carleton offers more than 200 undergraduate programs, with access to the unique resources provided by its close proximity to government institutions, libraries and media.

As a research-focused university, Carleton works closely with its community partners to identify emerging areas of importance.

Affordability: $ Experience: ++ Lakehead University Thunder Bay, Orillia Tuition and fees: $7,569.68 Undergraduate students: 7,164 Undergraduate graduation rate: 77.8 per cent (year rate unknown) Average debt at graduation: $18,084 Founded in 1965, Lakehead University offers a range of degree and diploma programs across 10 faculties. Lakehead promises a wholesome university experience, with a blend of academics and rich social and recreational activities. This past year, a student-led community project, Enactus Lakehead, created two programs to address the unique financial needs of communities in Northwestern Ontario.

Affordability: $$ Experience: + Laurentian University Sudbury Tuition and fees: $7,684.85 Undergraduate students: 8,100 Undergraduate graduation rate: 71.2 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $16,998 Laurentian University is a bilingual university offering more than 120 undergraduate programs across five faculties, with many programs and degrees offered in French. Class sizes are kept small and numerous programs offer hands-on experience, field work and co-op placements.

Laurentian has one of the highest postgrad employment rates in the province, as 94 per cent of undergraduate students find employment within six months of graduation.

Affordability: $$ Experience: ++ McMaster University Hamilton, Burlington, Kitchener, St. Catharines Tuition and fees: $7,988.81 Undergraduate students: 26,504 Undergraduate graduation rate: 79.2 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $17,705 Based in Hamilton, the fourthlargest city in Ontario, McMaster University is a research-intensive university that's home to more than 70 research centres and institutes. Although the school has a focus on its medical-doctoral program, McMaster offers more than 25 degree programs across six faculties. Aside from academics, McMaster has more than 250 cultural, academic and social issues clubs on campus and more than 30 varsity athletics and intramural options.

Affordability: $$$ Experience: +++ Nipissing University North Bay (main), Brantford Tuition and fees: $7,791.94 Undergraduate students: 4,487 Undergraduate graduation rate: 86.5 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $19,289 Nipissing University is a primarily undergraduate university offering arts and science, education, professional and a few graduatelevel programs. It's one of the smaller universities in the province, which allows for interactive classes and a personalized, student-focused approach, with online and blended learning options available.

Affordability: $$ Experience: ++ OCAD University Toronto Tuition and fees: $7,703.40 Undergraduate students: 4,200 Undergraduate graduation rate: 64.6 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $16,341 Originally established as the Ontario School of Art in 1876, OCAD University is one of the oldest and largest educational institutions for art and design in Canada. It currently offers 17 undergraduate programs in three faculties, ranging from advertising and graphic design to drawing and painting, and environmental design to Indigenous visual culture. It's also home to 18 research labs and nine galleries.

Affordability: $$ Experience: + Ontario Tech University Oshawa Tuition and fees: $8,283.16 Undergraduate students: 9,536 Undergraduate graduation rate: 71.4 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $17,423 Recently rebranded from the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, one of Ontario Tech University's primary focuses is the application of technology for greater societal good - "tech with a conscience." It offers 60 undergraduate programs in seven faculties, co-op and internship options, as well as opportunities for undergraduate students to work on research projects with faculty.

Affordability: $$$ Experience: N/A Queen's University Kingston Tuition and fees: $7,943.44 Undergraduate students: 20,185 Undergraduate graduation rate: 86.4 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $19,220 Established in 1841 by the Royal Charter of Queen Victoria, Queen's University is one of Canada's oldest universities. The midsized institution, located in Kingston, is a full-spectrum, researchintensive university offering 125 degree programs across eight faculties. The campus is home to a network of six libraries, as well as various museums and arts facilities. With many opportunities to get involved in student government, more than 300 clubs, 13 varsity teams and 20 recreation clubs, Queen's has a high student satisfaction rate.

Affordability: $$ Experience: +++ Ryerson University Toronto Tuition and fees: $7,076.14 Undergraduate students: 36,748 Undergraduate graduation rate: 72.2 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $16,019 With more than 125 research institutes and labs, Ryerson commits to being a city builder by researching the core challenges facing urban centres. Students can choose from 62 bachelor programs and get involved in any of the 70-plus student groups. Ryerson students can also apply traditional academic knowledge from their coursework into a new experiential Zone Learning model, where they can develop their own startups, causes, companies or ventures in one of 10 zones.

Affordability: $ Experience: ++ Trent University Peterborough, Oshawa Tuition and fees: $8,458.51 Undergraduate students: 9,622 Undergraduate graduation rate: 63.1 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $17,391 Nestled in Peterborough, with access to 30 kilometres of hiking trails and just a 90-minute commute from downtown Toronto, Trent University is one of the province's smaller universities. It has a student to faculty ratio of 18 to 1 and more than 100 programs across the arts, sciences, social sciences and professional studies.

There are 12 varsity teams, three varsity clubs and more than 130 student clubs and groups from which to choose.

Affordability: $$$ Experience: ++ University of Guelph Guelph (main), Toronto and Ridgetown Tuition and fees: $8,399 Undergraduate students: 26,741

Undergraduate graduation rate: 79.6 per cent, based on a six-year rate Average debt at graduation: $15,810 With campuses that span urban hubs and rural settings, the University of Guelph is a research-intensive university offering more than 85 undergraduate majors.

More than a thousand experiential learning opportunities are available, with more than 3,500 students involved in co-op education. Students looking to get involved in campus life have the choice of more than 200 clubs and 19 intramural sports options.

Affordability: $$$ Experience: +++ University of Ottawa Ottawa Tuition and fees: $7,310.84 Undergraduate students: 35,515 Undergraduate graduation rate: 68 per cent, based on a seven-year rate Average debt at graduation: $17,230 Located in the heart of Canada's capital, the University of Ottawa is the largest English-French bilingual university in the world, offering more than 450 programs in 10 faculties. UOttawa supports more than 22 centres and institutes that lead research on a range of areas, such as equity, diversity, cybersecurity, governance, health, aging, immigration and artificial intelligence. The school also has the second-largest co-op program in the province.

Affordability: $ Experience: ++ University of Toronto Toronto (main), Mississauga, Scarborough Tuition and fees: $8,252.83 Undergraduate students: 71,930 Undergraduate graduation rate: 75.6 per cent, based on a six-year rate Average debt at graduation: $17,513 Founded in 1827, the University of Toronto is Canada's largest university. It offers more than 980 programs at the undergraduate, graduate and PhD levels across three campuses, and it ranks as the top university in Canada (13th in the world) for postgraduate employability. U of T is renowned for its prowess in research and it is home to 44 libraries, with the third-largest library system in North America.

Affordability: $$$ Experience: ++ University of Waterloo Waterloo (main), Cambridge, Kitchener, Stratford Tuition and fees: $7,779.10 Undergraduate students: 34,002 Undergraduate graduation rate: 81.1 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $16,127 The University of Waterloo combines innovative experiential learning, impact-driven research and traditional academics, with program offerings across six faculties. The university opened its doors in 1957, with engineering and co-operative education as its cornerstones. Today, it's home to the world's largest co-op program of its kind.

Affordability: $$ Experience: ++ University of Western Ontario London Tuition and fees: $7,704.05 Undergraduate students: 23,579 Undergraduate graduation rate: 81.5 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $19,485 Located in London with a campus varying from historic gothic style to modern buildings, Western offers more than 90 undergraduate programs across its 12 faculties.

These range from arts, humanities and social science to education, engineering and health sciences, at the undergraduate, graduate and PhD levels. Western has a keen focus on research, with some of its current work focused on neuroscience, domestic violence and wind engineering research.

Affordability: $$ Experience: ++ University of Windsor Windsor Tuition and fees: $7,488.02 Undergraduate students: 12,283 Undergraduate graduation rate: 75.5 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $18,772 The University of Windsor enrolls students in 190 undergraduate programs, 65 graduate programs and six professional programs.

The student-to-faculty ratio at UWindsor is 26 to 1. Last year, University of Windsor students invested 1.25 million total hours of service to the communities of Windsor and Essex County through structured experiential education programs.

Affordability: $$ Experience: + Wilfrid Laurier University Waterloo (main), Brantford, Kitchener, Milton, Toronto Tuition and fees: $7,983.32 Undergraduate students: 17,970 Undergraduate graduation rate: 76.5 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate (average across all programs) Average debt at graduation: $16,845 With nine faculties, more than 20 research centres and institutes and a 25-to-1 student-to-faculty ratio, Wilfrid Laurier's programs connect hands-on learning with co-curricular experiences. Co-op work terms, community service learning and volunteer activities are embedded in many programs.

Outside of class, students have 250 clubs and groups from which to choose, as well as 3,000 volunteer opportunities through the students' union.

Affordability: $$ Experience: N/A York University Toronto (main), Glendon Campus (French) Tuition and fees: $7,743 Undergraduate students: 49,659 Undergraduate graduation rate: 69.4 per cent, based on a sevenyear rate Average debt at graduation: $15,104 With 25 interdisciplinary and collaborative research centres, York University describes itself as "Canada's third largest interdisciplinary research and teaching institution." The school offers more than 5,000 courses across 10 faculties and has more than 200 partnerships with international universities. York U plans to have an experiential education component be a part of each program it offers. It currently has more than 8,000 experiential opportunities.

Affordability: $$ Experience: ++


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The small pleasures of adulting
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Why Isabel B. Slone looks to simple tasks to find purpose in her life
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By ISABEL B. SLONE
  
  

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Saturday, November 2, 2019 – Page O1

Isabel B. Slone is a writer living in Toronto.

I was born in 1989, part of a generation for whom gold stars and cheerful posters proclaiming "If you aim for the moon, you'll land amongst the stars" were plastered on the wall of seemingly every elementaryschool classroom. I was relentlessly conditioned to believe I could achieve everything I wanted to achieve, and for a long time, I believed that to be true. So far, the defining feature of my adult life has been a recalibration of expectations. Every year, the success and accolades I once imagined for myself grow further out of reach. I will not be everything I wanted to be. That's why I started giving myself participation ribbons for achieving the bare minimum.

It's generally accepted that people are supposed to find purpose, or at least a modicum of stability and satisfaction, in the institution of marriage, parenting and home ownership. But having little interest in the first two and priced out of the latter, I look to simple tasks such as making the bed, watering plants and cooking a meal to find purpose in my life.

Like so many other millennials, I live in an overpriced city with diminishing job prospects in my chosen field. But rather than fantasize about torching my current situation in favour of moving to a cabin, a less expensive city or, worse, grad school, I have committed to finding pleasure in the life I currently inhabit.

As someone who has spent most of my life working toward the next lofty goal, my life got a whole lot better once I stopped searching for ways to improve it.

Mundanity is my succour. Consistently completing tasks such as keeping track of my expenses or remembering to take my library books back on time - all loosely tied together under the umbrella of "adulting" - are a form of revelling in my own mediocrity. Although "adulting" is a puerile word I can barely bring myself to utter in seriousness, I embrace the definition of the term as a duty to myself.

My ability to complete the tasks that most people have been trained to view as tedious, or a waste of time, is my way of making peace with living a life that is, by all accounts, totally unspectacular.

In essence, adulting has become my hobby. On an average day, I will wake up early, make coffee, then immediately get to work on my laptop. But my day is constantly interrupted by unavoidable duties such as cooking, washing the dishes, sweeping, watering plants, scrubbing the bathtub, doing laundry, taking out the garbage, keeping track of expenses, getting toothpaste from the drugstore. I do not rush through these activities with an attitude of resentment, or believe I'm too important, or even too busy, to be completing them in the first place. Instead, I do them, consciously - mindfully, even. Ticking every item off a todo list gives me an inordinate sense of accomplishment.

Ironically, what makes these tasks enjoyable is the fact that, technically, I don't have to do them any more. We live in a world of utmost convenience, where almost every single prosaic activity can be outsourced.

We no longer have to learn how to take care of ourselves, because as long as we have enough money, there is always someone who can do it for us. There is no incentive to cook, thanks to Foodora; for driving, there's Uber; for leaky faucets or putting together furniture, there's TaskRabbit; and for any random activity someone is willing to perform for $5, there's Fiverr. This aversion to grunt work advances the mindset that domestic tasks have little value and therefore ought to be outsourced in order to devote time toward more esoteric pursuits.

More often than not, these esoteric pursuits turn out to be more work. "Free time can always turn into productivity, so when productivity is properly managed, there is no such thing as free time," Malcolm Harris writes in the 2018 treatise on millennial culture, Kids These Days.

Mr. Harris argues that present social conditions lead kids as early as preschool to view themselves as human capital who must work toward fulfilling their full potential or else risk certain failure. Human capital views time as an investment: If an individual is going to be spending time on an activity, it had better pay off.

Technically, nothing about these compulsory duties ever pays off; like a millstone around the neck, they're a permanent weight that never quite lifts because they invariably need to be performed over and over again.

A dirty floor will just get dirty again, so why bother sweeping at all? Answer: because the routine completion of these tedious tasks helps life to flow more smoothly. If I go through the trouble of picking up milk while doing errands, the next morning I will be able to enjoy coffee made to my own specifications instead of frustrated and crabby at the inconvenience caused by failing to perform a last-minute errand.

Earlier this year, writer Anne Helen Petersen published an essay on BuzzFeed about her inability to complete these small tasks. Ms. Petersen self-diagnosed her inability to go to the post office as "millennial burnout," a generationwide exhaustion that comes with every moment of one's life being optimized for work. After the essay was published, it received widespread praise, then inevitable backlash: It failed to take into account the generational trauma faced by people of colour, and that the problem of exhaustion isn't unique to millennials.

Two months later, Maureen O'Connor wrote a similar story for The Cut about the outsourcing economy, admitting that she eschews trips to the grocery store in favour of ordering perishables through Amazon Fresh.

(One time, a single onion was delivered in a furniture-sized box.)

But while these essays expertly zero in on the locus of a problem - that the former goalposts by which we used to measure adulthood have all but disappeared - they fail to provide a way out of the modern morass of convenience that has all but consumed our very will to live. Shifting the small acts that make up "adulting" from drudgery to the sublime is the only way out of this bone-tired corner that late capitalism has painted us into.

If grunt work can be elevated into something that is inherently satisfying, it will remove some of the control capitalism has over our lives. Sure, I could summon a hot meal or a handyman to my door with the nimble swipe of a finger, provided there's enough money in my bank account, but why would I want to? The ability to cook and clean for myself is not just an insistence on humility, it's a way of taking back power in a world that not just expects but profits off of my own helplessness. It's never been easier to figure out how to do things oneself - "Rule 34," which dictates that if something exists, it's been made into porn, applies just as much to YouTube instructional videos as it does smut - but tinkering as a hobby has largely been left behind in the converted garage workshops of the houses most millennials will never own.

I come by this desire to DIY honestly. My family hails from a rural area where self-sufficiency is paramount. The majority of the food they consume comes from a vegetable patch in the backyard or livestock raised and slaughtered by the neighbours; the surplus is frozen and feasted upon for the remainder of the year.

Groceries are supplemental, as opposed to a necessity. My parents buy next to nothing because they want for so little, and when they do, it can always be found second-hand. Nothing about their life could be described as convenient - they only recently got WiFi and have a habit of unplugging the router when it's not in use, terrified some internet demon will filch their precious bandwidth - and that's the way they like it. They're essentially living the modern hipster's fantasy of farm life, only that's the way they've always lived.

My boyfriend is convinced my yen for self-sufficiency is somehow a marker of lurking conservatism. But just as the Luddites were painted as the enemies of technological progress for destroying knitting machines in the 1800s, my intentions are easily misconstrued. The term "Luddite" has become shorthand for technological ineptitude; say, a mom who refuses to let go of her landline in favour of a smartphone.

But in actuality, Luddites attacked only the factories whose owners upheld exploitative working conditions. They were labour activists, not inept fogeys.

By eschewing the technological advances designed to make my life more convenient, I am leading a quiet one-person rebellion against the working conditions that require these services exist in the first place.

The trick is to view everything in life as a success, even the most basic tasks.

Once I was able to accord the same level of accomplishment to a trip to the grocery store as I did a long-held career goal, my life was suddenly flooded with success. For example, if I manage to put on a great outfit and do my hair and makeup in a day, I view that as a success rather than an integral part of daily life. It's gamifying life, only the stakes are much, much lower. Pouring my self-image into tasks that I can actually accomplish, instead of relying on outside validation, has done wonders for my self-esteem. Simply put, to take radical pleasure in one's own mediocrity is the best way to defang the threat of constant failure.

Academically, this concept is called kakonomics, or, as philosopher Gloria Origgi writes, the "weird preference for low-quality payoffs." Ultimately, it's about renegotiating expectations to avoid disappointment at all costs. If an individual puts little effort into a venture that results in minimal gain, the outcome should be more or less expected.

It's an agreed-upon discount on quality that makes life more relaxing for everyone. Instead of chasing excellence, why not get a few loads of laundry done instead?

In the long-term, Ms. Origgi writes, a prolonged series of these low-quality exchanges will erode the system. Kakonomics regulates exchanges for the worst, meaning that if individuals are continually satisfied with mediocrity, they'll never have the joy of experiencing excellence.

But with the current concern over climate change that has turned almost everyone into a doomsayer, humanity might not have that much time left anyways.

So far, self-care and self-improvement have served as a balm for people hoping to selfsoothe in a broken culture, but no matter how many face masks and rose quartz crystals an individual buys, they cannot magick themselves out of reality. Drinking kombucha and lighting scented candles will not cure anxiety or depression; the only surefire way to improve one's life is to come to terms with one's own inherent mediocrity.

Putting this philosophy into practice shouldn't feel like giving up or a failure, it should feel like freedom from both society's expectations and one's own unrealistic ideas of productivity.

Adulting, when done right, is a way of creating meaning for oneself in a world where it's so often hard to come by. People are trained to feel as if executive duties are a distraction from life when, in reality, they're the main event.

Every time you suspect your efforts are not enough, I urge you to accomplish one task that will make life a little bit easier, be it wading through the mountain of dirty dishes in the sink, or returning an overdue library book.

You will be happier for it, I promise. And frankly, if you can shift your worldview so that laundering your bedsheets becomes the height of accomplishment, life might not be so dire after all.

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PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: THE GLOBE AND MAIL. SOURCE IMAGES: ISTOCK


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MAPLE LEAFS GM BECAME ONE OF HOCKEY'S MOST BELOVED FIGURES
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During his tumultuous time in Toronto working for Harold Ballard, his teams made the playoffs in eight out of 10 seasons, but he never saw his name engraved on a Stanley Cup
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By TOM HAWTHORN
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Friday, November 8, 2019 – Page B23

Jim Gregory challenged Canadian chauvinism by importing two Swedish hockey players for the Toronto Maple Leafs, an important step in turning professional hockey into a global game centred on skill rather than thuggery.

Mr. Gregory, a hockey executive who has died at 83, was a creative thinker in a sport mired in an antediluvian culture. It was his ill fortune that a foremost proponent of the old ways happened to be his employer, the irascible and unpredictable Harold Ballard. For a year, Mr. Gregory had meetings with the boss at the latter's temporary residences, the Kingston Penitentiary and the medium-security Millhaven Institution, while the team owner was serving a sentence for fraud.

Mr. Gregory spent 10 years as general manager of the Maple Leafs, a time during which he acted as a one-man firefighter snuffing Mr. Ballard's many arsons. In a tumultuous decade, which would be best captured in a farcical episode in which a fired coach was rehired three days later only to be ordered to wear a paper bag over his head (he refused), the beleaguered Mr. Gregory managed to put teams on the ice that made the playoffs in eight of 10 seasons.

Two of Mr. Gregory's draft picks - offensive forwards Darryl Sittler in 1970 (No. 8 over all) and Lanny McDonald three years later (No. 4 over all) - were central to Toronto's exciting style through the 1970s and both went on to be inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. He also drafted Tiger Williams, another fan favourite and a noted scofflaw who became the league's all-time leader in penalty minutes, a nod to the realities of an era in which star players needed to be protected by brawlers.

At the time, the Canadians who ran NHL teams felt Swedish players were too soft to survive the league's cutthroat game.

Based on the scouting of Gerry McNamara, the Leafs signed winger Inge Hammarstrom and defenceman Borje Salming. The forward averaged more than 20 goals a season in four campaigns with the Leafs, a modest contribution, while the fearless Mr.

Salming became an all-star and a Hall of Famer who combined mobility and scoring talent with a rugged disposition.

Mr. Gregory was a squat, stocky man with a dark complexion, a permanent five o'clock shadow and a thick black unibrow. He offered a calm, soft-spoken presence at Maple Leaf Gardens, a home to the hockey team as well as to travelling circuses, not to mention the circus conjured by the owner's whims and prejudices.

"A lot of things Harold did were erratic," Mr. Gregory once said.

"He wasn't patient a lot of the time."

The team the general manager tried to build was eviscerated when more than a dozen players fled to the rival World Hockey Association, where offers of higher salaries were not matched by the parsimonious Mr. Ballard.

As a National Hockey League executive, Mr. Gregory encouraged the use of video replay on controversial plays. For more than three decades, he read aloud the names of picks in the annual NHL entry draft, making him a familiar face to generations of hockey fans.

As chair of the Hockey Hall of Fame selection committee, Mr.Gregory had the pleasant task of informing newly elected members of the good news. When he was too sick to attend meetings in 2007, the committee voted to induct him into the hall as a builder in recognition of his half-century as a hockey executive and administrator.

After a decade of poor health, including a serious heart attack suffered in the NHL's Toronto offices in 2009, which left him in critical condition, Mr. Gregory died at his home in suburban Toronto on Oct. 30. He leaves his wife of 60 years, the former Rosalie Bruno, whom he met on a blind date. He also leaves a son and three daughters, 13 grandchildren, two great-grandchildren, two brothers and two sisters. He was predeceased by a brother.

James Michael Gregory was born on Nov. 4, 1935, in Port Colborne, Ont., and grew up in Dunnville, a town 35 kilometres to the west. He was one of six children born to Henry Gregory, a stationary engineer from Salford, England, near Manchester, and the former Catherine Cecilia Gandour, known as Pearl. She was a bookkeeper before her marriage and one of five daughters born to Michael Gandour, a Dunnville fruit and confectionery merchant originally from Lebanon. Henry Gregory, whose own father died in Malta in 1915 of wounds suffered at Gallipoli, signed up for military service soon after the outbreak of the Second World War, though he was never sent overseas as he wished.

In Dunnville, population about 5,000, young Jim starred as a track athlete, as well as on the football gridiron, the baseball diamond and the hockey rink. Eager to play junior hockey, he followed three cousins to St. Michael's College, a private Catholic boys' school in Toronto known as a hockey hotbed. One of his roommates in Tweedsmuir House was Dick Duff, who would go on to win six Stanley Cup championships (twice with the Maple Leafs and four times with the Montreal Canadiens).

Mr. Gregory's own dreams of playing in the NHL were stymied by his poor skating. The Grade 12 student was twice cut from the school's junior-B hockey team and the youth was prepared to leave the school to try out for a team in Hamilton when persuaded by homeroom teacher David Bauer, soon to be ordained as a priest, to help out with the St.

Mike's junior-A team by keeping statistics and buying equipment.

(Father Bauer went on to create a Canadian national amateur hockey team composed of studentathletes to compete at the Winter Olympics in 1964 and 1968.)

In 1959, by which time he was working as a sales representative for the consumer products manufacturer Colgate-Palmolive in Toronto, Mr. Gregory was hired by Conn Smythe to handle minor hockey teams in winter and to work in the Smythe family sand and gravel business in summer.

Mr. Smythe nicknamed his new hire Pope, a reference to his Catholicism.

Mr. Gregory was an assistant coach and manager under Father Bauer when St. Michael's won the Memorial Cup as Canada's junior hockey champions in 1961. The Basilian priest led the team in a prayer of thanks in the locker room after the final game. Three years later, Mr. Gregory coached the Toronto Marlboros to the Memorial Cup championship with one of the greatest junior hockey teams ever assembled. Eleven of the Marlies went on to play in the NHL. In 1967, the Marlboros again claimed the junior title with Mr.Gregory as general manager.

The 1966-67 season was a hectic one for Mr. Gregory, who also filled in as acting Maple Leafs general manager for 10 games while Punch Imlach recovered from illness. Those Leafs won the Stanley Cup in Centennial Year, the most recent championship for the storied team.

After a year as coach of the Vancouver Canucks of the Western Hockey League, Mr. Gregory spent a season as a scout before being promoted to replace Mr.

Imlach as Toronto's general manager.

Mr. Imlach won four Stanley Cups for Toronto in the 1960s, but by 1969 the team was tired and in disarray.

The ownership was also in turmoil, as three owners - Mr.

Smythe's son Stafford Smythe, newspaper baron John W. Bassett and Mr. Ballard, a long-time friend of Stafford's - jockeyed for control after an RCMP raid led to charges being laid against the younger Smythe and Mr. Ballard.

Mr. Bassett sold his shares and Mr.

Smythe died suddenly at the age of 50, leaving Mr. Ballard as principal owner shortly before he was jailed.

The Leafs needed rebuilding.

Early in his tenure, Mr. Gregory shocked fans by trading veteran defenceman Tim Horton to the New York Rangers for future considerations (which turned out to be veteran goalie Jacques Plante and wingers Denis Dupéré and Guy Trottier).

Unlike many of his counterparts in the expanded, 12-team NHL, Mr. Gregory was impressed by novel European approaches to the game. He marvelled at the Soviets practising deflections for more than two hours. In practices, he encouraged the development of patterns of play, instead of mere scrimmages.

He was also keen to sign other Europeans, notably Anders Hedberg and Ulf Nilsson, but Mr.

Ballard was reluctant to spend more money on Swedes. The pair instead signed with the Winnipeg Jets of the WHA, where they were scoring sensations alongside Bobby Hull on what was the dubbed the Hot Line.

The upstart league's raids also cost the Leafs the likes of veteran goalie Bernie Parent, centre Jim Harrison, defencemen Jim Dorey and Rick Ley, as well as veteran winger Paul Henderson and Dave Keon, a stalwart for the Leafs who had first played for Mr. Gregory at St. Mike's.

Savvy draft picks compensated somewhat for the loss of talent, as Mr. Gregory grabbed defenceman Ian Turnbull in the first round (No. 15 over all) of the 1973 draft and solid goalie Mike Palmateer with the 85th pick of the 1974 draft.

A willingness to experiment led to the hiring of Roger Neilson to replace Red Kelly as head coach in 1977. Captain Video, as Mr. Neilson was known, introduced the study of videotape to the game. He was also a rule-bender and a tactician of rare creativity.

Mr. Ballard fired the innovative Mr. Neilson after a game in 1979 before reinstating him because he was unable to find a replacement. The owner ordered Mr.Gregory to tell the coach to come out behind the bench wearing a paper bag, which was to be lifted to reveal his identity as the game started. The humiliated coach refused.

At the end of the season, Mr.Ballard fired Mr. Gregory to replace him with Mr. Imlach. Mr.Gregory learned of his dismissal only when the NHL front office called to offer him a job. He became the director of the league's Central Scouting Bureau.

When a 1988 university research paper accused the NHL of discriminating against FrenchCanadian hockey players, Mr.Gregory, who was in charge of the league's 16 scouts, disputed the claim.

"I think if you were to ask the 21 teams, they'd tell you they tried to pick the best guy," he said. "It doesn't matter if he is Chinese, Japanese, Lebanese, or Quebecese (sic)."

Mr. Gregory held a variety of titles with the NHL over 40 years, often serving as the league's ambassador. He was one of hockey's most beloved figures, a man who salvaged unused notebooks after each draft for distribution to needy schoolchildren.

He estimated he had witnessed more than 6,000 hockey games.

His one great regret was in not having his name engraved on the Stanley Cup, an honour he should have received for his temporary role as general manager in 1967.

Associated Graphic

Leonard (Red) Kelly, then coach of the Toronto Maple Leafs, left, talks with then-general manager Jim Gregory in 1973. Mr. Gregory himself coached the Toronto Marlboros junior hockey team to two Memorial Cups before taking over for Punch Imlach as the general manager for the Maple Leafs. He had previously filled in as acting GM for the team for 10 games in 1966-67 - the most recent season in which they won the Stanley Cup.

JOHN WOOD/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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RISING AGAIN
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Italy in 1919 was the birthplace of a genocidal ideology that still shapes our world - and inspires the strongmen who rule an increasingly large part of it, Taras Grescoe writes. What can we learn from those who resisted?
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By TARAS GRESCOE
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page O3

Taras Grescoe's latest book is Possess the Air: Love, Heroism, and the Battle for the Soul of Mussolini's Rome. He lives in Montreal.

O n Sept. 12, 1919, a short, bald, bow-legged former parliamentarian rode into the city of Fiume in a red sports car at the head of a column of mutineers from the Italian army.

For 16 months, Il Duce, as he was known to his followers, turned the port on the Croatian coast into a pirate city-state. Black-shirted veterans, who hailed their leader's balcony orations with straight-armed Roman salutes, terrorized the local population.

Opponents were forced to choke down castor oil, and schoolchildren were gunned down for failing to shout, "Viva Italia!" At the height of the occupation, it was widely believed their leader could have marched on Rome with 300,000 veterans and seized control of the Italian state.

It wasn't to be. Fiume would prove to be Gabriele d'Annunzio's last hurrah. Italian troops eventually besieged the city, d'Annunzio's legionaries surrendered and the decadent poetnovelist would live out the rest of his life in a kind of internal exile in his sprawling palazzo on the shores of Lake Garda. The occupation would go down in history as d'Annunzio's ultimate beffa - a prank and spectacular feat of daring by a brilliant self-promoter. Although he and his followers were responsible for creating the aesthetics and thuggish tactics of what would become fascism, the occupation of Fiume was a sideshow, one that would have no long-term impact on the history of Europe or the world.

What it did do, though, was provide cover for something much more virulent. Europe was transfixed by d'Annunzio's occupation, but six months earlier, in a rented hall in Milan's Piazza San Sepolcro, a former schoolteacher named Benito Mussolini, who had been expelled from the Socialist party for his support of Italy's entry into the First World War, presided over the founding of the Fasci di combattimento, a movement that "declared war against socialism ... because it had opposed nationalism."

This inauspicious meeting, attended by just more than 100 veterans, intellectuals and pro-war syndicalists, marked the true birth of fascism, the most noxious and genocidal ideology of the 20th century. Mussolini, who would usurp the title of Il Duce from d'Annunzio, would carry out his successful March on Rome, where the King would appoint him prime minister. In the name of fighting Bolshevism, the Fascisti would kill 3,000 socialists, torture tens of thousands of Italian citizens and run an equal number out of their communities. Within three years, Mussolini was in a position to declare himself "personal dictator" of Italy. In the two decades that followed, Italian Fascism, by a conservative estimate, sent one million people to an early grave.

"The March on Rome," Adolf Hitler would later acknowledge, "was one of the turning points in history. The brown shirt probably would not have existed without the black shirt."

The German version of fascism would launch a global conflict that killed as many as 85 million people - about 3 per cent of the world's population at the time.

A century after fascism was born, authoritarians are once again on the rise around the world. The failure of American leadership has produced a global moral vacuum that has emboldened the leaders of Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Russia, the Philippines, India and other anocracies and authoritarian regimes to strong-arm neighbouring polities and victimize migrants, religious minorities, Indigenous populations and LGBTQ citizens.

To consolidate their power, the "killer clowns," as British journalist George Monbiot labels such self-serving buffoons as Boris Johnson, cater to the basest prejudices of their electorates.

Tweet by tweet, Donald Trump - a would-be strongman only precariously held in check by the institutions of U.S. democracy - has torn apart the web of international agreements painstakingly woven by the generations who lived through the rise of dictatorships and were determined to prevent the return of global conflagration.

I've spent the past three years researching a book about how people responded to the first iteration of populist authoritarianism, Italian Fascism. As I immersed myself in newsreels, archives and eyewitness accounts of everyday violence, I was repeatedly chilled by the consonances with our time.

At a moment in history when Italians were feeling powerless and betrayed by the political establishment, Mussolini held forth a muscular program for restoring national pride - he wanted to Make Italia Grande Again. Unlike Mr. Trump, who has built nothing, Il Duce spent 20 years remaking Rome in the image of his paragon of ancient glory, Caesar Augustus. Il Duce excoriated - and eventually shut down - the free press, and established a oneway conduit to the Italian people through radio broadcasts and speeches from his balcony on the Palazzo Venezia. Mr. Trump, who communicates with his base via Twitter and Fox News, has focused on disparaging what he calls #fakenews from the White House and his Mar-a-Lago resort.

Mussolini encouraged, and selectively reined in, the violence of his Fascisti thugs, implying that only his authority prevented them from running amok. Mr.

Trump has whipped up supporters at his rallies to eject protesters and has offered approval for the white supremacists who murdered and maimed at Charlottesville. Even the Italian dictator's mannerisms - chin and chest thrust out, arms crossed, shouting down opponents - eerily echo those of the U.S. President.

During the course of my research, I repeatedly asked myself: Are we living through a replay of the circumstances that birthed fascism in Europe a century ago?

The answer: Not exactly.

These are very different times. In the 21st century, we face monster storms, wildfires and rising sea levels spurred by ever-increasing greenhouse gas emissions; the relentless slow boil of population growth; international migration brought on by conflict and environmental degradation; and the very real threat from never-dismantled nuclear arsenals. All of which foster a climate of anxiety exploited by strongmen who appeal to people who feel powerless in the face of change.

"History," as U.S. historian Timothy Snyder writes in his slender but crucial 2017 volume On Tyranny, "does not repeat, but it does instruct." History also offers us lessons in what to watch out for, and how to act, in a time when right-wing demagogues are once again on the rise.

For Mr. Snyder, who painstakingly documented mass killings by the Soviets and Nazis in Poland, Ukraine and Belarus in Bloodlands, "most of the power of authoritarianism is freely given": A complicit population obeys in advance, instinctively anticipating the wishes of a repressive leader. "When the pro-leader paramilitary and the official police and military intermingle," he warns, "the end has come." Such was the case in Italy in the early 1920s, when local police and the military rode in the same trucks as Blackshirts in murderous "punitive" raids against labour leaders. (Mr. Snyder suggests this is a real and present danger in the United States, with its armed state militias, highly militarized police forces and privately run prisons.)

The challenge lies in preventing things from ever reaching such a state. And that can only be achieved through the unglamorous work of defending the institutions that make democracy function, among them an independent judiciary, a free press and a vital civil society. Many Italians acquiesced to totalitarian dictatorship because they were disgusted with liberal politicians who had proved corrupt, ineffectual and all too willing to lead their country into a costly war. "Italians felt the need to get rid of their free institutions," the brilliant historian Gaetano Salvemini observed, at the very moment when they "should step forward to a more advanced democracy."

We can learn a lot from the Italian anti-fascists who sacrificed their careers, their freedom - and in some cases, their lives - to oppose the hate, violence and warmongering they saw taking over the public life of the country they loved. Salvemini's rigorous policy was to heap contempt on every Blackshirt he met and relentlessly expose their hypocrisy and lies in the voluminous writings he produced when he was forced to flee into exile. The Florentine anti-fascists Nello and Carlo Rosselli, after a daring motorboat escape from island exile, organized an effective campaign of resistance and propaganda from Paris, before being gunned down by the goons of the Italian secret police on a roadside in Normandy.

The subject of my book, Italian-American poet Lauro de Bosis, took another path. At a time when the Fascists had choked off all sources of information from the outside world, de Bosis organized a samizdat-style series of chain letters denouncing the regime, then bombarded the heart of Fascist power in Rome with anti-fascist manifestos from the cockpit of a small plane, before flying off into the night.

These are shining examples of resistance, but they also lay out a blueprint we can follow in our everyday lives. Here are some lessons I learned from the original anti-fascists: Don't take freedom for granted - vote in elections at every level and value, protect and participate in the free institutions that underlie democracy.

Systematically denounce expressions of xenophobia and hatred (even if they are camouflaged in spurious philosophical language, as is the case with Quebec's Islamophobic Bill 9, which would force new immigrants to take a "values test.") Don't be befuddled by propaganda and misinformation; read widely - preferably books and legitimate journalism - and verify authorship, which these days means avoiding the echo chamber of prejudice-confirming blather on cable news and social media. Practice kindness, dialogue and connection, and cultivate real relationships with the people who surround you, rather than succumbing to the politics of division. Finally, stand up for, and stand by, the people that populist demagogues seek to exclude and scapegoat, whether they are Mexican migrants in El Paso, Tex., or observant Muslims in Montreal.

De Bosis, whose daring flight maddened Mussolini, turned himself into the anti-d'Annunzio. His act of courage was not designed for personal glory, but to puncture a toxic status quo - the illusion that an authoritarian dictatorship controlled everything, including the sky over Rome.

"It is those," Mr. Snyder reminds us, "who were considered exceptional, eccentric, or even insane in their own time - those who did not change when the world around them did - whom we remember and admire today."

And that is why, in the 21st century, the most admirable thing any person of conscience can do is to resist, with words and actions, the would-be authoritarians who marshal fear and hatred to prevent us from doing what we know is right.

Associated Graphic

Generations before U.S. President Donald Trump brought a nationalist message to American politics, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, known as Il Duce (the Leader), had his own vision to Make Italia Grande Again.

TALLANDIER/BRIDGEMAN IMAGES

Tuesday, November 12, 2019
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A NEAR-DISASTER UNITED MISSISSAUGA
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Sunday marks the 40th anniversary of a 106-car freight train derailment and fire that caused 20,000 people to seek shelter in malls, and grocery stores to give out free food and supplies, as the then-five-year-old city banded together as a community
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By BEN COHEN
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page A16

I t's been called the "Mississauga Miracle" - the greatest Canadian disaster that never was.

Forty years ago this Sunday, a 106-car Canadian Pacific freight train loaded with propane, chlorine and other toxic chemicals derailed and caught fire in the suburban city, unleashing blasts of poison clouds that took almost a week to clear. The emergency prompted the largest peacetime evacuation in Canadian history as more than 226,000 people fled.

Yet there were no casualties.

Many remember it as a unifying event for Mississauga, then just five years old. About 20,000 people took shelter in public spaces such as the Square One and Sherway Gardens malls. Local grocery stores and businesses offered free food and supplies, and many residents say there was a real sense that the sprawling community west of Toronto had finally become one.

To mark the 40th anniversary, The Globe and Mail spoke with people who fought, watched, fled and reported on the derailment.

(The job titles below are those the interviewees held in November, 1979.)

Cyril Hare, Mississauga chief fire inspector: I lived about a mile south of where the train wreck was. My wife and I had some friends over at the time and one of our friends looked out the back window and said, "Your house is on fire!" I jumped outside and said, "Oh my God!" There I am, the chief fire inspector, and my house had caught fire.

Gord Bentley, Mississauga fire chief: I was looking for the keys to my fire-service vehicle after I heard about the crash. Then I saw the sky light up.

Mr. Hare: The deputy fire chief, Art Warner, was at his son John's wedding that night up in Brampton. Somebody went outside, looked south and came back in and said, "There's a big fire going on down in Mississauga!" So Art said, "I gotta go." He showed up at the scene in a tuxedo.

Barry King, Mississauga police staff inspector, command post co-ordinator: I was just returning from downtown Toronto with my wife and family in the car. Then we saw the fire. It was horrendous. You couldn't see any part of the sky that wasn't red.

Mr. Hare: I rushed out and jumped in my fire department car. Immediately we realized that there were propane tanks involved and that we were going to have huge explosions very soon.

Mr. King: The police radio was crackling non-stop. Everybody was calling at the same time.

Mr. Hare: Trying to get people to leave was almost impossible, because everybody wanted to come out and see the fire. A young dispatcher came up to me and said, "What should I do?" I said, "Well, there's going to be the biggest explosion you ever saw in your life, so get behind something!"

Joe Zammit, 12-year-old observer: The sky was orange, just orange. My father said, "Get some clothes on, let's go see what the heck this is about."

Mr. Hare: The relief valves on the propane-tank cars were pouring flames. People don't realize how loud they were - they were shrieking like jet engines. Then they changed pitch. If you know what to listen for, you know that means they're about to blow. I started hot-footing it down the road. Everyone saw the guy in the white hat running. They said, "He knows something we don't," and they all started running with me.

That's when it happened. A huge flash of light and a shock wave that knocked us all in the ditch.

Mr. Zammit: We could feel this massive wave of heat just come through us. My father looked at me and said, "Son, this is no place for us."

Mr. Hare: After the explosion, there was no problem getting the public to leave.

At this point, 27 cars were still attached to the burning train. Train brakeman Larry Krupa rushed the flames and uncoupled two tankers, allowing his father-in-law, engineer Keith Pruss, to separate the remaining cars from the train. Mr. Krupa was recommended for the Order of Canada for his bravery and inducted into the North American Railway Hall of Fame.

Hazel McCallion, mayor of Mississauga: I was in bed at the time, and my son heard the explosion.

He went up on the roof to see it and when he came down he said, "Mom, I think City Hall blew up."

Mr. Hare: I was surprised we weren't killed. When it blew up and I saw that flash, I thought, "Well, this is it." But then everybody got up and nobody was hurt.

Minutes later, a second explosion launched a tanker hundreds of feet into the air. It landed about a kilometre away.

Mr. Bentley: There were three major explosions in all, as you might call them. We call them BLEVEs, boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions - very common with propane that's been superheated. We lost the Parks and Recreation building - it was on fire before we even got there.

Ms. McCallion: Within a few minutes of the explosion, the fire chief called me and told me about the derailment and that people in the immediate area had been evacuated to Square One, which had opened up its facilities. The people there were in their night clothes because the police wouldn't even give them time to get dressed. So I got up and I went to Square One.

Mr. King: We set up a command centre upwind of the crash so that we wouldn't inhale any of the chlorine. We determined there that we needed help, so we called Toronto, we called York, we called Halton and we called the OPP.

Ms. McCallion: I went to the command centre and I didn't go to bed for three nights. The train had to be constantly monitored because it was emitting chlorine, and we needed to evacuate areas depending on which way the wind blew because chlorine is so deadly.

Mr. Bentley: We decided early on that it was futile to try to put the fire out, so we took a defensive position and tried to protect the buildings in the area. At the start, the fire was very large, potentially impossible to put out. We were hitting it with 5,000 gallons of water a minute.

The fire finally went out after burning for more than two days. Thirtyfive pounds of chlorine were also leaking out of a damaged tanker every hour. It took three days to deal with the chlorine, and eight firefighters had to be hospitalized for chlorine inhalation.

Mr. King: I went down with one firefighter near the train, and this puff of chlorine gas waved over toward us. It just looked like a funny little cloud. He got a real dose of it and down he went. I don't believe he ever went back to work. I had a tenth of what he had, but it was just enough to sear me. I was coughing up green phlegm the whole week. Doctors told me I would start feeling the effects of the chlorine when I got older. I started feeling it around 51. ... Now I can only walk my dogs past three or four houses before I have to sit down.

Mr. Bentley: Getting rid of the chlorine was quite an operation.

It was vacuumed out into a 250foot pipeline we had built so that the chlorine flowed into a tanker truck, which was loaded up with sodium. When the chlorine hit the sodium it made salt water. We were able to then dump it out.

Mr. King: I think we were on a high at the time doing it. I don't mean getting excited, going, "Gee, this is great." We were really hyper-focused.

Mr. Bentley: All together, I put in 186 hours on duty in 10 days.

Mr. Hare: I left home on Saturday night just before midnight and I didn't come home again to see my wife until the following Friday night. We slept at the fire hall and rotated 12-hour shifts. At the station, back at the scene, at the station, back at the scene. My house was in the evacuation zone so there was no real going home.

John Stewart, Mississauga journalist: It was a once-in-a-lifetime story and still the most memorable moment in my career.

Mr. King: There really was hardly any criminal activity. It made us wonder, "Are we missing something?" And the other thing is there was nobody injured. We had to evacuate a hospital with 500 people in it and three or four nursing homes that had about 100 people each - those were the toughest. But no one got hurt.

Mr. Stewart: Everybody in Mississauga has a derailment story. My favourite? There was this woman who had evacuated to her friend's house, but she left her tickets to the opera back home. So she canoed across the river to go get them.

Mr. Zammit: After we were evacuated, we had to go back because I needed to get my heart medication from my house. The police escorted us through an absolutely empty city. Road after road of absolute nothing. Ghost town. I'll never forget that.

Ms. McCallion: Prior to the derailment, municipalities were not mandated to have an emergency plan. We had one, but other municipalities didn't. As a result of the Mississauga derailment, it became mandated by the province.

Now everyone has one.

Mr. Hare: Because of what happened, there's a lot more legislation on the transportation of dangerous goods and workplace hazard information.

Mr. Bentley: Most people couldn't even pronounce Mississauga prior to this. People just knew that it was some place up in Canada near Toronto. Because of the international coverage, and the way it was handled, the incident put the city's name on the map.

Associated Graphic

Firefighters are seen directing jets onto several burning cars carrying toxic chemicals such as chlorine and propane after a Canadian Pacific freight train derailed in Mississauga on Nov. 10, 1979.

TIBOR KOLLEY/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Firefighters battle the freight-train blaze in Mississauga early on Nov. 11, 1979. The derailment also caused 35 pounds of chlorine to leak out of a damaged tanker every hour, resulting in the hospitalization of eight firefighters.

DENNIS ROBINSON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Hazel McCallion, seen above during a news conference on Nov. 16, 1979, was in bed when the derailment occured and her son told her that from the roof, it looked as if City Hall had blown up. The blaze prompted OPP officers, such as the one at top wearing a gas mask, to evacuate 226,000 people.

PHOTOS BY DENNIS ROBINSON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Sherman on the other side of rivalry game
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Ex-Seahawk now has a big role in 49ers' league-leading defence
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By ROB MAADDI
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page S12

The last time the San Francisco 49ers had a winning record for a home game in November, Colin Kaepernick was their quarterback and Russell Wilson and Richard Sherman ate turkey legs at midfield to celebrate a victory for Seattle.

That won't happen Monday night when the unbeaten 49ers (8-0) play host to the Seahawks (7-2) in the biggest game in this rivalry since Thanksgiving, 2014.

The 49ers lost to the Seahawks 19-3 that night to fall to 7-5. They finished 8-8 that year and hadn't won more than six games until this season.

Sherman is on their side now, playing a huge role for the NFL's top-ranked defence. The threetime All-Pro cornerback is part of a secondary that's No. 1 against the pass. San Francisco has allowed the fewest yards per game (241) and second-fewest points (12.1). But the Niners will be without linebacker Kwon Alexander.

Jimmy Garoppolo has played well and could have three starters joining him in the starting lineup.

Bookend tackles Joe Staley and Mike McGlinchey and fullback Kyle Juszczyk are expected back from injuries, bolstering the league's second-ranked rushing attack.

They'll face a defence that has struggled. Seattle ranks 22nd in points allowed, 25th in yards allowed and 25th in sacks. Jadeveon Clowney only has two sacks, though he faces double teams quite often.

But the X-factor for the Seahawks is Wilson. He's playing at an MVP level. Wilson has 22 TD passes, only one pick and leads the league with a passer rating of 118.2.

Week 10 began Thursday night with the Oakland Raiders' 26-24 home victory over the Los Angeles Chargers.

Josh Jacobs scored on an 18yard run with 1:02 remaining to give Oakland the lead. Derek Carr led the Raiders (5-4) down the field methodically 75 yards after Philip Rivers threw a 6-yard pass to Austin Ekeler that gave the Chargers (4-6) a 24-20 lead with 4:02 remaining.

New England (8-1), Houston (6-3), Philadelphia (5-4), Jacksonville (4-5), Denver (3-6) and Washington (1-8) have a bye this week.

DETROIT (3-4-1) AT CHICAGO (3-5) The battle for last place in the NFC North features a pair of teams that combined for one win in October. The Lions have lost four of five after a 2-0-1 start. Their only win in that span came against the Giants two weeks ago. The Bears have lost four in a row following a 3-1 start.

Detroit has the third-ranked passing offence in the NFL. Matthew Stafford is second in the league in touchdown passes (19) and fifth in passer rating (106.0).

On the opposite side, Mitchell Trubisky and the Bears have the third-worst passing offence, averaging 186.3 yards per game. But the Lions have the third-worst pass defence, giving up 295.3 yards a game through the air.

BALTIMORE (6-2) AT CINCINNATI (0-8) Bengals quarterback Ryan Finley makes his first NFL start, replacing Andy Dalton. Finley won't have seven-time Pro Bowl wide receiver A.J. Green back from ankle surgery. Green has missed the first eight games. The rookie will face the first-place Ravens behind a poor offensive line facing a blitzing defence.

The Ravens are coming off a convincing 37-20 victory over the previously unbeaten Patriots.

Their defence held Tom Brady in check and Lamar Jackson threw for a TD and ran for two more.

Jackson had 153 yards rushing in Baltimore's 23-17 win over the Bengals last month.

BUFFALO (6-2) AT CLEVELAND (2-6) The Bills are off to their best start in 26 years, feasting on losing teams. Their wins have come against clubs that are 9-43 combined while both losses were to teams currently with winning records.

They'll face the Browns, who've proved to be overhyped entering the season. Baker Mayfield, Odell Beckham Jr. and Co.

were a fashionable pick to win the AFC North, but these are the same old Browns. They appear to have deeper issues beyond poor performance on the field.

Buffalo has the league's thirdranked defence, led by sack leader Jordan Phillips and a strong secondary, and quarterback Josh Allen already has 12 rushing TDs in his first 20 games.

ATLANTA (1-7) AT NEW ORLEANS (7-1) Both teams are coming off a bye heading in opposite directions.

Drew Brees returned after missing five games and picked up where he left off, throwing for 373 yards and three TDs against Arizona.

Not much has gone right for the Falcons, but they do have the league's top-ranked passing offence. Matt Ryan is expected to return from an ankle injury that sidelined him one game. Coach Dan Quinn's defence has struggled since he took over co-ordinator duties, but he made a coaching switch during the week off, shifting receivers coach Raheem Morris to the secondary. Atlanta has allowed the third-most points per game (31.3).

NEW YORK GIANTS (2-7) AT NEW YORK JETS (1-7) North Jersey bragging rights are on the line when the Giants switch locker rooms at their home stadium to be the "road" team against the Jets. Things are only slightly better for the Giants, who briefly enjoyed success after rookie Daniel Jones replaced Eli Manning. But they've lost five in a row.

The Jets are a mess under firstyear coach Adam Gase, who is already on the hot seat. Sam Darnold has taken a step backward from his rookie season and twotime All-Pro Le'Veon Bell hasn't run for more than 70 yards in his first eight games with his new team.

The real loser in this game might be the team that hurts its draft positioning by winning.

ARIZONA (3-5-1) AT TAMPA BAY (2-6) Rookie quarterback Kyler Murray has helped the Cardinals look promising, though it hasn't translated into many wins. Murray hasn't thrown an interception in five games and has been a dualthreat passing and running. Kenyan Drake ran for a team-high 110 yards and caught four passes for 52 yards in his debut with the Cardinals last week, though David Johnson could return for this game.

The Buccaneers have had trouble finishing games. They took leads into the fourth quarter of three of their six losses, including a 40-34 overtime loss at Seattle last Sunday. Jameis Winston bounced back from two poor games to post his fifth performance with a passer rating in the 100s this season.

KANSAS CITY (6-3) AT TENNESSEE (4-5) Patrick Mahomes might return under centre after dislocating his kneecap on Oct. 17. The Chiefs are 2-1 with Matt Moore, including the game he finished when Mahomes got hurt. Kansas City needs to stay close to the Patriots (8-1) going into their Week 14 matchup to have a chance at home-field advantage.

The Titans are 2-1 since Ryan Tannehill replaced Marcus Mariota, but they were sloppy in a loss to Carolina last week. They also lost cornerback Malcolm Butler to a wrist injury.

Tennessee will have to rely on Derrick Henry's running to keep Mahomes off the field and limit Kansas City's offence. The Chiefs have the fourth-worst run defence in the league and allowed 161.7 yards a game on the ground in their three losses.

MIAMI (1-7) AT INDIANAPOLIS (5-3) Brian Hoyer is expected to make his first start of the season filling in for Jacoby Brissett as the Colts host the Dolphins, who are no longer winless.

Hoyer stepped in after Brissett injured his knee and tossed three TD passes, but Adam Vinatieri missed a 43-yard field goal with 1:14 left in a 26-24 loss at Pittsburgh. Now Indy will likely have to rely on the 11-year veteran for a while until Brissett returns.

Another veteran, Ryan Fitzpatrick, led the Dolphins to their first win, throwing three TD passes in a victory over the Jets. Miami will need more FitzMagic against the Colts because two of the team's best young players won't play. Running back Mark Walton was suspended for four games and receiver Preston Williams has a knee injury.

CAROLINA (5-3) AT GREEN BAY (7-2) Aaron Rodgers and the Packers are coming off their worst game this season, a 26-11 rout at the Chargers. Rodgers questioned the team's preparation on a trip to California. They should be focused back at home and with a bye week coming.

The Panthers are Kyle Allen's team now that Cam Newton is officially out for the season. Allen is 5-1 as the starter and getting his sixth win won't be easy at Lambeau Field. He'll rely on Christian McCaffrey, who could be in for a big day against Green Bay's run defence. McCaffrey is second in the league in rushing and the Packers allow 127.7 yards rushing a game.

LOS ANGELES RAMS (5-3) AT PITTSBURGH STEELERS (4-4) Jared Goff, Todd Gurley and the rest of the Rams' offence have a tough task against Pittsburgh's defence. The Steelers are second in the league with 22 takeaways and third in sacks with 29. Minkah Fitzpatrick already has four interceptions since joining the team, including a pick-6 last week.

The Rams won't have receiver Brandin Cooks, who is out with a concussion. Gurley hasn't rushed for more than 65 yards since Week 1, but Los Angeles has relied on its passing attack, ranked fifth in the league.

Mason Rudolph makes his sixth start in Ben Roethlisberger's absence. He's played well, keeping the Steelers in the playoff chase.

MINNESOTA (6-3) AT DALLAS (5-3) This will be a matchup of strengths as Dallas has the league's top-ranked offence led by Dak Prescott, Ezekiel Elliott and Amari Cooper while the Vikings have the No. 7 defence. On the flip side, Minnesota's eighthranked offence takes on Dallas' sixth-ranked defence.

The Cowboys are seeking their third straight victory. They had consecutive lopsided wins against division rivals. They begin a stretch of tough games, playing five of their next seven games against teams currently with winning records.

The Vikings look to bounce back after their four-game winning streak was snapped in Kansas City. Kirk Cousins has 14 TD passes and only one pick in the past seven games, and Dalvin Cook leads the NFL in rushing with 894 yards.

Associated Graphic

San Francisco 49ers cornerback Richard Sherman runs with the ball against Washington in Landover, Md., on Oct. 20.

ROB CARR/GETTY IMAGES

Tuesday, November 12, 2019
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Sherman on the other side of rivalry game
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Ex-Seahawk now has a big role in 49ers' league-leading defence
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By ROB MAADDI
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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page S12

The last time the San Francisco 49ers had a winning record for a home game in November, Colin Kaepernick was their quarterback and Russell Wilson and Richard Sherman ate turkey legs at midfield to celebrate a victory for Seattle.

That won't happen Monday night when the unbeaten 49ers (8-0) play host to the Seahawks (7-2) in the biggest game in this rivalry since Thanksgiving, 2014.

The 49ers lost to the Seahawks 19-3 that night to fall to 7-5. They finished 8-8 that year and hadn't won more than six games until this season.

Sherman is on their side now, playing a huge role for the NFL's top-ranked defence. The threetime All-Pro cornerback is part of a secondary that's No. 1 against the pass. San Francisco has allowed the fewest yards per game (241) and second-fewest points (12.1). But the Niners will be without linebacker Kwon Alexander.

Jimmy Garoppolo has played well and could have three starters joining him in the starting lineup.

Bookend tackles Joe Staley and Mike McGlinchey and fullback Kyle Juszczyk are expected back from injuries, bolstering the league's second-ranked rushing attack.

They'll face a defence that has struggled. Seattle ranks 22nd in points allowed, 25th in yards allowed and 25th in sacks. Jadeveon Clowney only has two sacks, though he faces double teams quite often.

But the X-factor for the Seahawks is Wilson. He's playing at an MVP level. Wilson has 22 TD passes, only one pick and leads the league with a passer rating of 118.2.

Week 10 began Thursday night with the Oakland Raiders' 26-24 home victory over the Los Angeles Chargers.

Josh Jacobs scored on an 18yard run with 1:02 remaining to give Oakland the lead. Derek Carr led the Raiders (5-4) down the field methodically 75 yards after Philip Rivers threw a 6-yard pass to Austin Ekeler that gave the Chargers (4-6) a 24-20 lead with 4:02 remaining.

New England (8-1), Houston (6-3), Philadelphia (5-4), Jacksonville (4-5), Denver (3-6) and Washington (1-8) have a bye this week.

DETROIT (3-4-1) AT CHICAGO (3-5) The battle for last place in the NFC North features a pair of teams that combined for one win in October. The Lions have lost four of five after a 2-0-1 start. Their only win in that span came against the Giants two weeks ago. The Bears have lost four in a row following a 3-1 start.

Detroit has the third-ranked passing offence in the NFL. Matthew Stafford is second in the league in touchdown passes (19) and fifth in passer rating (106.0).

On the opposite side, Mitchell Trubisky and the Bears have the third-worst passing offence, averaging 186.3 yards per game. But the Lions have the third-worst pass defence, giving up 295.3 yards a game through the air.

BALTIMORE (6-2) AT CINCINNATI (0-8) Bengals quarterback Ryan Finley makes his first NFL start, replacing Andy Dalton. Finley won't have seven-time Pro Bowl wide receiver A.J. Green back from ankle surgery. Green has missed the first eight games. The rookie will face the first-place Ravens behind a poor offensive line facing a blitzing defence.

The Ravens are coming off a convincing 37-20 victory over the previously unbeaten Patriots.

Their defence held Tom Brady in check and Lamar Jackson threw for a TD and ran for two more.

Jackson had 153 yards rushing in Baltimore's 23-17 win over the Bengals last month.

BUFFALO (6-2) AT CLEVELAND (2-6) The Bills are off to their best start in 26 years, feasting on losing teams. Their wins have come against clubs that are 9-43 combined while both losses were to teams currently with winning records.

They'll face the Browns, who've proved to be overhyped entering the season. Baker Mayfield, Odell Beckham Jr. and Co.

were a fashionable pick to win the AFC North, but these are the same old Browns. They appear to have deeper issues beyond poor performance on the field.

Buffalo has the league's thirdranked defence, led by sack leader Jordan Phillips and a strong secondary, and quarterback Josh Allen already has 12 rushing TDs in his first 20 games.

ATLANTA (1-7) AT NEW ORLEANS (7-1) Both teams are coming off a bye heading in opposite directions.

Drew Brees returned after missing five games and picked up where he left off, throwing for 373 yards and three TDs against Arizona.

Not much has gone right for the Falcons, but they do have the league's top-ranked passing offence. Matt Ryan is expected to return from an ankle injury that sidelined him one game. Coach Dan Quinn's defence has struggled since he took over co-ordinator duties, but he made a coaching switch during the week off, shifting receivers coach Raheem Morris to the secondary. Atlanta has allowed the third-most points per game (31.3).

NEW YORK GIANTS (2-7) AT NEW YORK JETS (1-7) North Jersey bragging rights are on the line when the Giants switch locker rooms at their home stadium to be the "road" team against the Jets. Things are only slightly better for the Giants, who briefly enjoyed success after rookie Daniel Jones replaced Eli Manning. But they've lost five in a row.

The Jets are a mess under firstyear coach Adam Gase, who is already on the hot seat. Sam Darnold has taken a step backward from his rookie season and twotime All-Pro Le'Veon Bell hasn't run for more than 70 yards in his first eight games with his new team.

The real loser in this game might be the team that hurts its draft positioning by winning.

ARIZONA (3-5-1) AT TAMPA BAY (2-6) Rookie quarterback Kyler Murray has helped the Cardinals look promising, though it hasn't translated into many wins. Murray hasn't thrown an interception in five games and has been a dualthreat passing and running. Kenyan Drake ran for a team-high 110 yards and caught four passes for 52 yards in his debut with the Cardinals last week, though David Johnson could return for this game.

The Buccaneers have had trouble finishing games. They took leads into the fourth quarter of three of their six losses, including a 40-34 overtime loss at Seattle last Sunday. Jameis Winston bounced back from two poor games to post his fifth performance with a passer rating in the 100s this season.

KANSAS CITY (6-3) AT TENNESSEE (4-5) Patrick Mahomes might return under centre after dislocating his kneecap on Oct. 17. The Chiefs are 2-1 with Matt Moore, including the game he finished when Mahomes got hurt. Kansas City needs to stay close to the Patriots (8-1) going into their Week 14 matchup to have a chance at home-field advantage.

The Titans are 2-1 since Ryan Tannehill replaced Marcus Mariota, but they were sloppy in a loss to Carolina last week. They also lost cornerback Malcolm Butler to a wrist injury.

Tennessee will have to rely on Derrick Henry's running to keep Mahomes off the field and limit Kansas City's offence. The Chiefs have the fourth-worst run defence in the league and allowed 161.7 yards a game on the ground in their three losses.

MIAMI (1-7) AT INDIANAPOLIS (5-3) Brian Hoyer is expected to make his first start of the season filling in for Jacoby Brissett as the Colts host the Dolphins, who are no longer winless.

Hoyer stepped in after Brissett injured his knee and tossed three TD passes, but Adam Vinatieri missed a 43-yard field goal with 1:14 left in a 26-24 loss at Pittsburgh. Now Indy will likely have to rely on the 11-year veteran for a while until Brissett returns.

Another veteran, Ryan Fitzpatrick, led the Dolphins to their first win, throwing three TD passes in a victory over the Jets. Miami will need more FitzMagic against the Colts because two of the team's best young players won't play. Running back Mark Walton was suspended for four games and receiver Preston Williams has a knee injury.

CAROLINA (5-3) AT GREEN BAY (7-2) Aaron Rodgers and the Packers are coming off their worst game this season, a 26-11 rout at the Chargers. Rodgers questioned the team's preparation on a trip to California. They should be focused back at home and with a bye week coming.

The Panthers are Kyle Allen's team now that Cam Newton is officially out for the season. Allen is 5-1 as the starter and getting his sixth win won't be easy at Lambeau Field. He'll rely on Christian McCaffrey, who could be in for a big day against Green Bay's run defence. McCaffrey is second in the league in rushing and the Packers allow 127.7 yards rushing a game.

LOS ANGELES RAMS (5-3) AT PITTSBURGH STEELERS (4-4) Jared Goff, Todd Gurley and the rest of the Rams' offence have a tough task against Pittsburgh's defence. The Steelers are second in the league with 22 takeaways and third in sacks with 29. Minkah Fitzpatrick already has four interceptions since joining the team, including a pick-6 last week.

The Rams won't have receiver Brandin Cooks, who is out with a concussion. Gurley hasn't rushed for more than 65 yards since Week 1, but Los Angeles has relied on its passing attack, ranked fifth in the league.

Mason Rudolph makes his sixth start in Ben Roethlisberger's absence. He's played well, keeping the Steelers in the playoff chase.

MINNESOTA (6-3) AT DALLAS (5-3) This will be a matchup of strengths as Dallas has the league's top-ranked offence led by Dak Prescott, Ezekiel Elliott and Amari Cooper while the Vikings have the No. 7 defence. On the flip side, Minnesota's eighthranked offence takes on Dallas' sixth-ranked defence.

The Cowboys are seeking their third straight victory. They had consecutive lopsided wins against division rivals. They begin a stretch of tough games, playing five of their next seven games against teams currently with winning records.

The Vikings look to bounce back after their four-game winning streak was snapped in Kansas City. Kirk Cousins has 14 TD passes and only one pick in the past seven games, and Dalvin Cook leads the NFL in rushing with 894 yards.

Associated Graphic

San Francisco 49ers cornerback Richard Sherman runs with the ball against Washington in Landover, Md., on Oct. 20.

ROB CARR/GETTY IMAGES


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The last temptation of Martin Scorsese
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The Irishman is a thrilling, visceral crime story in the vein of the director's most popular work - but it's also something deeper
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By BARRY HERTZ
  
  

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Friday, November 8, 2019 – Page A18

The Irishman CLASSIFICATION: R; 210 MINUTES Directed by Martin Scorsese Written by Steven Zaillian Starring Robert De Niro, Joe Pesci and Al Pacino

It is unexpectedly and entirely delightful that so much of 2019 has revolved around Martin Scorsese, age 76. In one corner, there is Martin Scorsese, Cinema Champion, raging against the emptiness of the comic-book movie and doing so with the determination and vigour and tohell-with-all-of-you fire of an artist who knows he is absolutely right. In another corner there is Martin Scorsese, Medium Innovator, pushing the digital limits of what the screen is capable of containing, and forcing audiences to ask themselves if this is the cinematic future we desire. And in another corner, there is Martin Scorsese, Industry Disruptor, partnering up with Netflix, Hollywood's greatest modern foe, in half a bid to change the way movies are made, half a bid to burn easy cash in order to achieve what was previously an impossible-to-realize vision.

For so much of this very long year, we have spent time talking about what Scorsese says, what he thinks and how those cinematic principles might, and should, ricochet across the zeitgeist. We've drawn battle lines and allegiances, we've hardened our artistic philosophies and we've tied ourselves into all manner of unnecessary cultural knots. But now, with the longawaited release of The Irishman, we finally get the opportunity to discuss what Scorsese has actually done. And it is glorious.

All of this should have been anticipated. Without argument, Scorsese is one of our greatest working filmmakers, and has spent the past decade not only reaffirming this thesis through his own genre-resistant work (including this past spring's wiggly Rolling Thunder Revue: A Bob Dylan Story by Martin Scorsese), but by also lending his weight to the schemes of others (in 2019 alone, he produced Joanna Hogg's The Souvenir and the Safdie brothers' Uncut Gems, both all-timers).

If there is still any doubt as to Scorsese's artistry, The Irishman will put skeptics to bed. Or six feet under.

Partly a continuation of the career-long conversation he's been having with audiences about the evil that men do, and partly a reflection on regret - life's most profound inevitability - The Irishman is the film that Scorsese has been working his whole life toward. Much like the director's most popular work, this is a crime film, thrilling and visceral. But The Irishman represents something deeper, too. It's as much a companion piece to the propulsive, addictive violence of Goodfellas and Casino as it is to the meditative lacerations of Silence, the punishing doubts of The Last Temptation of Christ and the spiritual suffering of The Age of Innocence.

Weaving together several different timelines - but never enough that the narrative is confusing to follow - The Irishman follows the misdeeds of Frank Sheeran (Robert De Niro), a reallife hit man for the Philadelphia mob who first cozies up to the head of the Bufalino crime family (Joe Pesci), and eventually becomes an enforcer for Teamsters chief Jimmy Hoffa (Al Pacino).

As the story crosses decades, Scorsese and his screenwriter Steve Zaillian use Sheeran as a narrative means of dipping in and out of the East Coast underworld, painting as expansive and disturbing a portrait of American avarice as has ever been produced.

And then comes The Irishman's final half-hour, when Scorsese and De Niro, his long-time and most trusted collaborator, engage in a dialogue not only with immorality, but with cinema's eternal appetite for it. It is stirring and daring work that will be remembered long after, say, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (sorry, Groot).

While every performance in The Irishman is exceptional, it is amusing that De Niro, ostensibly the title character, gets crowded out by nearly everyone else - Pacino, for starters. The Irishman marks only the third time De Niro and Pacino, the two heavyweights of American acting, have ever shared the screen, and Scorsese exploits the occasion for all it's worth.

Taking a match to the deliberately muted combustion of Michael Mann's coffee-shop meetup in 1995's Heat, The Irishman slams the two performers up against one another like it's the most naturally incendiary pairing in the world. Which it is.

(I believe that we, as a human race, have collectively decided to never speak about De Niro and Pacino's other team-up, 2008's Righteous Kill.)

As Sheeran, De Niro is all tightly coiled nerves and brutal protectiveness - a snake waiting for his prey to make one wrong move. As Hoffa, Pacino is a spittle-spewing beast, stomping over everything and everyone to get his way, the volume turned as high as the creature can muster.

It is a glorious pairing, even if the camera clearly lusts for Pacino more, especially when the actor is slurping down ice cream (Hoffa devours enough onscreen sundaes that I was worried for Pacino's blood-sugar levels) and dancing in and out of an Irish accent (one that coming from another performer's mouth might sound sloppy, but here favours the impression of deliberate imprecision - of a man who can swing back and forth from folksy humbleness to brash theatrics whenever it suits his needs).

De Niro and Pacino are not exactly revelations here - we know the heights that each man can hit when given the opportunity and the discipline. The actual surprise should be reserved for Pesci, who works so delicately against the expectations Scorsese himself once helped engineer.

Pesci's Russell Bufalino is not the crazy clown of Goodfellas, nor the brash hothead of Casino. He's not even the more sympathetic, but still aggressive, Judas of Raging Bull. Russell is an entirely new skin for Pesci to slip on, tightly pulled but still combustible. Pesci's soft voice and immovable presence combine to create a force that never has to be reckoned with, because everyone already wisely assumes the chaos such a provocation might cause. It is a performance so good that it stings - maybe none of us, not even Scorsese, knew just what a gift Pesci is until this moment.

If The Irishman was only a three-hander between De Niro, Pacino and Pesci, then that would be enough. But Scorsese fills his cast out with a staggering number of familiar faces, all doing excellent work in the margins. Harvey Keitel, looking as hair-trigger volatile as ever, gets a choice walk-on role as an oldschool Philly mafioso. Meanwhile, Stephen Graham, Bobby Cannavale, Jack Huston, Domenick Lombardozzi and Ray Romano, all veterans from either one of Scorsese's HBO series Boardwalk Empire and Vinyl, bounce off the walls, clearly having the time of their lives. (Yes, you read that right: Ray Romano, Master Thespian.)

Perhaps the tidal wave of talent was made possible by the sheer amount of money Scorsese was able to wring out of Netflix (reportedly US$159-million, a staggering sum these days for a film not about a superhero). Either way, it is great fun to watch The Irishman and think of how much joy Scorsese must have had setting fire to so much of the streaming giant's cash reserves.

Midway through the film, Scorsese has Sheeran and his co-conspirators toss a dozen taxi cabs in a lake, a shot that must've cost at least a couple hundred thousand dollars.

And then, because he seemingly decided that's not enough onscreen destruction, Scorsese follows up the scene with Sheeran's goons setting an entire fleet of cabs ablaze.

The money has been slightly less well-spent on the film's much-discussed digital effects, which "de-age" performers so that De Niro and Pesci can play the same characters decades younger. A scene featuring De Niro as a twentysomething Sheeran in the Second World War is distressingly silly - his face waxy and creepy. Thankfully, that moment is a brief one, and the trick becomes more natural the longer the film goes on. Still, there is an aspect to the actors' age-appropriate physicality that no amount of CGI can mask. Audiences, and Scorsese himself, know that the younger De Niro was powered by a manic and jittery onscreen electricity, leaping off the screen in Mean Streets.

Here, there's a pronounced ricketiness to the supposedly youthful version of Sheeran - an autotuned lumbering that should be a natural sprint.

Speedier, though, is just how quickly The Irishman acts as a definitive closer to the perennial argument that Scorsese is somehow glamorizing the lives of criminals. With the exception of Sheeran's morally disgusted daughter, Peggy (Anna Paquin, who does a lot with how little the guy-heavy screenplay offers), The Irishman is consumed with damning its characters: horrible men who do horrible things for the advancement of no one but themselves. Goodfellas, Casino, The Departed and The Wolf of Wall Street each offered similar condemnations, but The Irishman delivers a more lasting, aching pain that should quash anyone's fantasies of crime. But if anyone needs even further evidence, Scorsese provides it in a literal manner here, too: Every time Sheeran meets a new mafioso, Scorsese throws a few quick lines of text on the screen detailing their ultimate, and untimely, deaths - a sick joke for those who are sick jokes themselves.

The only challenge The Irishman presents, then, is convincing skeptics to sit down for its entire 210 minutes (or, you know, 28 minutes more than the infinitely soggier Avengers: Endgame). For all the consternation about The Irishman's length, the film truly breezes by, its only mild narrative hiccup being a bit of unnecessary internecine mob rivalry involving (Crazy) Joe Gallo (a slice of history flicked at in Goodfellas).

Yet, even this diversion is filmed so energetically, and cast so well thanks to Sebastian Maniscalco's flip-the-bird energy as Gallo, that I am actually scrubbing this criticism from the official record. Which means that The Irishman is nearly perfect.

Here is to 2019: the Year of Martin Scorsese. It was a long time coming.

The Irishman opens Nov. 8 at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto; Nov.

15 in Vancouver, Ottawa, and Montreal; Nov. 22 in Calgary and Edmonton; and Nov. 27 on Netflix.

Associated Graphic

Martin Scorcese's The Irishman follows the misdeeds of real-life hit man Frank Sheeran (Robert De Niro), weaving together several different timelines. It also brings together an array of incredible performances, not only from the incendiary pairing of De Niro and Al Pacino in their third time sharing the screen, but from a staggering number of other familiar faces.


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Leslie Jamison's constant craving
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Author explores the unattainable yearning for closure and completeness in her latest collection
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By MATT WILLIAMS
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Saturday, November 2, 2019 – Page R10

Leslie Jamison's incisive, insightful writing on the human condition has earned her comparisons to celebrated authors such as Susan Sontag and Joan Didion. Her 2014 essay collection, The Empathy Exams, explored topics such as the mysterious Morgellons disease, the West Memphis Three and a "Grand Unified Theory of Female Pain," while her 2018 tome The Recovering poignantly examined the intersection of addiction and creativity, telling her own recovery story alongside those of celebrated artists. Her latest, Make It Scream, Make It Burn, plumbs the depths of obsession, haunting and longing with stories about Zagreb, Croatia's Museum of Broken Relationships, past lives, Second Life, her own life and "the loneliest whale in the world," among others. With a tender hand, Jamison illuminates the monumental effect that yearning has on our lives - how it shapes us, what it says about the ways we connect with others and how we might learn to reckon with it.

One of the things I love most about this book is that you drive home the idea that some kind of final resolution or closure is often unattainable. There isn't an end to yearning - it's part of the deal.

When did your thinking shift toward this perspective?

I guess I've been obsessed with ongoingness in some way for my whole life. I can't remember a time before I had this deep yearning for closure and completeness.

But the flip side of that yearning for closure and completeness, I think, is this constant awareness of how impossible they are. Because I actually have a type-A personality. I was just joking with my friend the other night that I feel like I have a very antsy, artistic temperament, especially now that I'm sober. If you could see me now at my desk, you would see me trying to create a very meticulous to-do list so that I can cross everything off of it. I do actually yearn to be done in some way, and try to control chaos in all these ways in my life. But I think that urge for completion or that urge for total order is constantly coming up against my awareness that most of life is full of things that will never be completed, like relationships or yearnings or forms of intimacy with other people, whether those forms of intimacy are ongoing in a relationship or just ongoing as a kind of internal conversation. Which is so much of what "Museum of Broken Hearts" is trying to get at - even once a relationship is done, it's still living inside you in some way. So, I think my obsession with ongoingness is always in conversation with a craving for completion inside of me, and that tension is always alive more than either side getting to win out.

The book also solidifies this idea that it's okay to be in that spot where you can't avoid both craving resolution and understanding it's never going to happen. I think a lot of our tension ends up coming from not being able to achieve that resolution. I know it's a shift in my own thinking that I've only been able to manage in the past couple years. But it feels like magic - you can have a better understanding of relationships and practise patience better because you know everyone else is going through the same thing.

I heard somebody say the other day - they attributed it to Plato, who didn't say this, but I think there's something that's even more moving about misattributed quotes. My tattoo initially came to me as a misattributed quote. They said, "As Plato said, everyone you meet is fighting a great battle." And it wasn't Plato who said it, I think it was some 19th-century Scottish minister.

But I love it and I love that people want Plato to have said it. I mean, I talk about it all the time. It shows up in that David Foster Wallace commencement speech that I reference in one of the essays, too, this idea that the annoying person in front of you at the supermarket is fighting a great battle. I think that's kind of cheesy, but it's so true. And how instantaneously do we forget it.

And how important to try to come back to it.

So - why haunting and obsession?

Was there a connecting path from addiction and recovery?

Maybe it has to do with this idea of ongoingness. Because when you initially asked that question about the way this interest in things that can't be completed or living in that state of incompletion is at the core of the collection, I think that's really true. One of the places my mind went to is definitely sobriety and how - as I write about in The Recovering and people talk about a lot in recovery - the fantasy of your sobriety being done isn't possible, because as long as you're alive, your sobriety is this open-ended thing and you just have to keep living it.

You never check it off the list. So I think there is something about addiction and recovery that brings up that idea of ongoingness and this story that can't quite ever have an end. That definitely fed into the interest in open-endedness that shows up in the concepts of obsession, because you keep chasing a thing; longing, you're yearning toward something you can't quite have; haunting, you're still obsessed with it even once it's gone.

They're all about ongoingness in some way. So, in that sense I think they do come pretty organically from the way that my writing about recovery and sobriety is also interested in ongoingness.

What's haunting you right now?

I was recently having a conversation with a friend of mine, and we were talking about the predicament of being self-aware people in this world. She said, "I think when you're super self aware, it can be harder to stay awake or open to the things you don't yet know about yourself."

Ever since we had that conversation, I've really been carrying that question around. "What do I not yet know about myself?" Because I think self-awareness or self knowledge can become this kind of trap where you think, "I understand myself." But then that self-understanding hardens you in a way. I've become really interested in that. What are the ways that I'm going to surprise myself over the next decade? Or handle things in a different way than I had told myself I always did? There's this big new biography of Susan Sontag coming out this month and I wrote an essay about it for a magazine down here in the States. Sontag was sort of living out the same psychodramas over and over again in her personal life - I mean, aren't we all? But I think there was something about the claustrophobic stranglehold that her inner demons had on her, and reading an 800-page biography where you see them playing out over and over again made me think, "God, I wish she had had more of that experience of, 'What do I not yet know about myself?' " Rather than being in the loop. So, yes - "What do I not yet know about myself?" is my answer to that question.

It's a good one, and reminds me - I feel I've made it to a place where my artistic practice is aesthetically defined, and that feels good. But when I dwell on it, there's a big part of me that thinks, "I want to burn that down completely."

I was just having a different conversation with another friend last night where she was talking about something quite related to that impulse to want to burn it down, about the fact people can be so quick to extol the virtues of self-acceptance, but there's actually a kind of stasis or a deadening in self-acceptance. And a kind of loss, where we're always living with the companions of these possible, hypothetical versions of ourselves, and self-acceptance involves almost killing off this possible other self you could be, because you're just accepting the self that you are. I thought that was so smart and I was like, "Oh right. There's something about dissatisfaction that is generative and alive." "Make it scream" obviously comes from the William Carlos Williams review of Walker Evans's photography. But that may be part of what "make it burn" is suggesting: that idea of perpetual reinvention, always burning something down and building it up again.

There's a part of your essay about The Division of Perceptual Studies where you mentioned that you've become skeptical of knee-jerk skepticism itself. When and how did that happen for you? Because to me, through The Empathy Exams and The Recovering, it often felt like that was a defining characteristic of your work - that willingness to believe despite the odds.

In some ways, I think I've always had the soul of a believer or an embracer or an agnostic. I think that's where my temperament naturally wants to go. I'm interested in states of curiosity and wonder and enthusiasm. They feel more generative to me. But it's almost like that natural disposition was submerged for many years in my teens and 20s because I think I just felt too insecure. I felt too vulnerable and too unsure of myself to be an enthusiast or an agnostic or a believer. Certainly, something like cliché, that would be true for. I was too insecure to try to mount a defence of clichés until I had arrived at enough of a sense of self that I could risk being somebody who might stand behind things. So, in a way, I've never really thought about this before or articulated it like this before, but I think it's right or part of the truth, anyway - it's almost like I had to do a certain amount of work to find a footing or confidence in the world that would allow me to embrace rather than paper over this natural impulse to, rather than dismiss things, think about what was beautiful or meaningful inside of them.

Associated Graphic

Leslie Jamison uses the stories in her latest collection, Make It Scream, Make it Burn, to illuminate the monumental effect that yearning has on our lives.

BEOWULF SHEEHAN


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'You don't look like a veteran,'
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Stigma against those who are outside the 'traditional' veteran ideal remains all too common, writes Kelly S. Thompson. This Remembrance Day, let's make sure that Canada's soldiers, like the rest of the population, are celebrated for their differences
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By KELLY S. THOMPSON
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page O1

she said.

'Oh no?' I tried to keep my voice even, pretending I hadn't had my former officer status questioned a million times before.

'And what does a veteran look like?' Kelly S. Thompson is a former captain in the Canadian Armed Forces and the North Bay, Ont.-based author of Girls Need Not Apply: Field Notes From the Forces.

A trip to an insurance agent is often tedious, but rarely a matter of existential anxiety. Yet, there I was, in 2012, sitting sheepishly in one of Vancouver's provincial insurance offices, the walls sporting posters urging us to drive safely and the staff appearing typically disengaged - and my nerves were showing in my tense face, mottled from crying all morning.

My purpose there was simple - applying for a veteran's licence plate, which allowed for free parking in the city suburbs. I have always been a sucker for free parking. But the reason for my stress was much more complicated: I had been a civilian for all of nine months, and even after eight years of being Captain Thompson, I was convinced I hadn't earned the designation.

I wasn't yet 30 years old; I hadn't seen war. I didn't even feel entitled to the depression that led to my medical military release; my colleagues had been forced to hurt other people and had seen friends torn apart on battlefields, so who was I to feel this way? An overwhelming feeling of inadequacy clawed at my throat whenever anyone called me a veteran.

My dad, on the other hand, was a real veteran, in my eyes: silvery hair, wrinkled skin and a chest full of war medals from his peacekeeping service in the Golan. So when he encouraged me to obtain the form to have my military service validated for the licence plate, I decided to gird myself and make the drive down to this office.

It didn't quite go as planned.

The insurance agent looked down at the form, her neon fingernails glowing under the office's fluorescent lights. She snapped her gum.

"You don't look like a veteran," she said.

"Oh no?" I tried to keep my voice even, pretending I hadn't had my former officer status questioned a million times before. "And what does a veteran look like?" "You know, old. Like, Second World War kind of old. And you're a girl." That last bit was said with sass, as though my gender and military service could not square with what she was reading on the paper in her hand.

Emboldened, I raised an eyebrow while I signed here and there on the paperwork she handed back to me, my loopy cursive signature apparently unbecoming of soldierness. "I'm a woman, actually. Not a girl."

The agent pounded her date stamp with a thwack, dug through her filing cabinet of poppy-painted metal plates and handed me one, shrugging, as I held its weight in my hand.

She didn't need to tell me that I don't fit the military mould: I knew it from the day I enrolled as an 18-year-old, just after 9/11.

Among my friends, my passion for magenta lipstick is renowned, as are my funky haircuts, my dedication to art and my love of story. Artsy-fartsy was the term my dad used to describe me, as did many of my male military colleagues. And even though I come from a place of privilege, with my white skin and cisgender expression, even I struggle with the veteran label when I stare back at the mirror. What I see doesn't compute with what society expects me to be.

Just a month before the fiasco at the insurance office, I'd felt impossibly out of place while paying respects during my first civilian Remembrance Day. My beret slipped awkwardly on my new civilian hairstyle, and I could see firsthand, compared with my former comrades on the other side, how much I didn't belong. I wondered about the other veterans who stood next to me at the cenotaph, sporting their own medals and military headwear.

We spanned all ages, races, gender expressions and other experiences.

We, the invisible veterans.

It isn't difficult to understand why the stereotype of the elderly, male, war-hardened veteran exists. Throughout the World Wars and in many of the years following, wartime propaganda stoked fears about the enemy, and our heroic soldiers were portrayed through physically strong, white, muscle-bound men (and later, some women, also white). Television, movies and even former Canadian Armed Forces recruitment videos have also defined military service using hypermasculinized characters. That image has been honed by media, but it has also in turn driven the predominantly white and male demographic of our military.

But there's a new veteran in town. In fact, there has been for quite some time.

Veterans Affairs Canada defines a veteran as "any former member of the Canadian Armed Forces who successfully underwent basic training and is honourably discharged." That's a pretty broad view, but a necessary one, especially when it comes to challenging our soldier stereotype. And indeed, by that definition, Veterans Affairs Canada reports that we have just less than 650,000 living veterans in the country, with fewer than 50,000 of them having served during the Second World War and in Korea. So the "new" veteran is the predominant veteran these days - reflecting a force that has grown more diverse through the years.

That diversity has not materialized overnight. Instead, it emerged through incremental shifts, both in terms of social advocacy and technology. Drones, tracking systems and weapons developments mean war is no longer a contest of sheer brute strength; it now requires a broader definition of a soldier who serves with a broader range of skills, knowledge and experiences. As a bonus, this effort to create a more capable force has led to a military that better reflects the country we have become.

The Charter of Rights and Freedoms has also provided inclusivity gains in the Forces' recruiting system by criminalizing discrimination based on a number of factors, including race, gender and sexuality, eliminating some barriers for marginalized people. Sandra Perron, the first female infantry officer in the Forces, challenged the Charter in 1990 to allow women into combat roles and since then, the Canadian military continues to evolve. While any military operates on the idea of unity, the Canadian Armed Forces are working to understand how that differs from assimilation, and how diversity is a boon to success, not a strike against it. Our soldiers, like the rest of the population, should be celebrated for our differences - age, health, gender expression, sexuality, racial group, length of service, combat or noncombat.

But stigma against those who are outside the "traditional" veteran ideal remains all too common. And sadly, that's even the case within certain military circles, in which some gate-keeping veterans are of the belief that there's a hierarchy of "real" veterans, like some kind of credibility test judged according to deployment time or combat seen.

Channelling the spirit of this thinking, a city councillor in Hamilton, Ont., advocated revising a free veteran parking policy in 2015 so that the benefit was only extended to "true veterans" - former soldiers over 60 "who have served for this country and put themselves in harm's way."

The amendment was soundly rejected, but it did prompt councillors to earnestly discuss the potential for "abuse" by "bad apples."

There has been real-world impact when ideas about what a soldier does and doesn't look like are limited. The Forces' PTSD policies and care procedures, for instance, only recently encompassed military sexual trauma in part because of a growing recognition of women in the military.

Countless LGBTQIA2+ members were released for homosexuality in the 1990s, and then were pressed into silence - robbing them of any public acknowledgment of their service. And that carries on after one's military career, when any treatment and care needed becomes a matter of debate and evidence-gathering, rather than affirmations of gratitude. "There have been structures that have supported that kind of view, of 'what is a veteran,' and 'what is legitimate PTSD,' " said Elaine Waddington Lamont, mental-health director at Women Warriors' Healing Garden, an organization that provides peer support and art therapies to female identifying, LGBTQIA2+, Indigenous veterans and persons of colour. "We need to honour all of those people, whether they fit the stereotypes or not."

For all its faults, social media has been a great tool for dispelling these stereotypes. Instant access to information lets curious Canadians see a broader spectrum of soldiering, allowing a better understanding of the military's contribution as well as the faces and stories of our troops.

And the benefit is twofold, as newer members are able to see firsthand accounts of actual military life and the real-life impact on their own futures. Major Tanya Grodzinski, an associate professor at Royal Military College of Canada, sees this firsthand as she educates the next generation of soldier. "The public didn't perceive [the military] as doing all that much," said Maj. Grodzinski of the years following the Second World War. "Now, the public has a greater understanding of what the armed forces is about and what they're doing."

The technical definition of a Canadian veteran does not discriminate between certain kinds of soldiers with certain kinds of experience. It chooses instead to value commitment to a cause and sacrifice for a country, no matter what that commitment and sacrifice looks like.

Canadian civilians can expand their understanding of veterans, to help in this cause. Start conversations with that person in uniform sitting nearby. Reach out to Legions for military speakers to participate in classrooms or events. Ask questions of veterans who might not look or act the part, but still have plenty of experience and wisdom to share.

And above all, remember that military service is more than war - there is humanity in there, too.

It matters what we call people who serve, and that we reflect and respect their services equally. I thank all soldiers for their service to their country - even those who feel unseen.

Associated Graphic

Kelly S. Thompson, a veteran who was a captain with the Canadian Armed Forces, is seen on Tuesday. Ms. Thompson, who grew up in a military family, writes about the new generation of veterans.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Tuesday, November 12, 2019
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THE OTHER SIDE
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Thirty years later, the Berlin Wall continues to divide Germans, Doug Saunders writes, shaping their psychological, economic and political lives
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By DOUG SAUNDERS
  
  

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Saturday, November 2, 2019 – Page O1

ROSTOCK, GERMANY -- Doug Saunders is the international-affairs columnist for The Globe and Mail and currently a Richard von Weizsaecker Fellow of the Robert Bosch Academy in Berlin.

ROSTOCK, GERMANY E veryone on this side of Germany remembers the evening of Nov. 9, 1989, when the extraordinary scenes from Berlin reached this far northern corner of their 40-year-old communist country.

"For me, it was a feeling of catastrophe," says Lotte Hansen, who was born in 1939, as she strolls around the half-decayed buildings of the "model socialist village" of Mestlin, on the rural outskirts of the Baltic port city of Rostock, in the former East Germany. "I was teaching in the school when we heard the Berlin Wall had come down.

The next day, a couple kids were missing. The next week, even more left to go join relatives in the west. ... It was a really terrible time for us. We took it all very personally."

Ms. Hansen had reason to see the Wall's demise as a disaster. In 1958, she had been one of the young idealists sent by the Soviet-backed government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) to expel land owners and collectivize the farmlands, in her case as a schoolteacher and as the wife of the top local party official.

As they watched the crowds demolishing the Wall and pouring across the death strip, both she and her students understood instantly that this would soon mean the end of their country - although they had very different feelings about it.

Thirty years later, what stands out is not just how vividly people remember that first breaching of Germany's "internal border," but the extraordinary extent to which that former border - not just the ring that encircled West Berlin, but the far longer barricade meant to keep 17 million people from fleeing - still shapes the psychological, economic and especially the political lives of the people who remain on the eastern side.

The Berlin Wall has now been down longer than it was ever up - it existed for 28 years, from 1961 to 1989. The GDR itself only ever existed for 41 years, although that was preceded by a decade of brutal war and Nazi savagery.

Since 1990, Germany has spent close to 2-trillion (almost $3-trillion) absorbing the old GDR into a single federal country. Every German adult still pays an annual "solidarity tax," equivalent to 5.5 per cent of their income tax, to subsidize the construction of an equal society that still, in important ways, remains elusive.

In Rostock, a city that was a thriving shipbuilding hub under the closed economy of the Warsaw Pact, the decade following reunification was tough, and the city became a grim-looking place of abandoned factories and more than 20-per-cent unemployment, known in the media for race riots.

Today, that's hard to see. Rostock is an attractive place, its historic square beautifully restored, its old factories turned into hightech business, cultural and shopping centres, its population finally growing again. The reunification spending means that the cities of eastern Germany often look more modern, attractive and orderly than those in the west, at least in their centres.

"We've had economic development, but only to a certain point," says Sylvia Grimm, a Rostock native who is a senior official in the state government here in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, the most rural of the eastern states.

Thirty years ago, she felt a sense of liberation that never left - but for many around her, the optimism fell away. "I was 16 in 1989, and I suddenly had the world at my feet - but it was different for my parents' generation."

Ms. Grimm speaks proudly of her state's progress: Unemployment has fallen to 6.5 per cent, comparable to some of the wealthier states of the west, and in fact there are now labour shortages, and the brain drain of educated people to the west has finally stopped.

But people in the eastern states still earn 20 per cent less than the national average for the same job.

None of the largest companies listed on Germany's stock exchange has moved its headquarters to the east, and when easterners start businesses, it's usually after they've moved to the west.

Within eastern Germany, only a fifth of the people who hold executive positions were born in the east, according to one study. Even police chiefs, city planners and mayors are frequently "wessis" who moved east in the 1990s and 2000s (many from the east seen as capable of filling those jobs, paradoxically, had fled west in the great postreunification exodus).

The flight from the east finally seems to have stopped. Between 1990 and today, at least 3.6 million people - most of them female and educated - moved from the east to the west, in a series of waves, leaving the former GDR with 15 per cent fewer people than it had three decades ago and many cities alarmingly depopulated. Starting this decade, however, that trend reversed: There are now more people moving from west to east, taking advantage of lower housing costs and employment opportunities.

The physical, employment and income differences between the two former countries have gradually lessened - driving from Hamburg to Rostock, or from Hanover to Leipzig, you can no longer tell when you've entered the east. In Berlin, the districts that were once on the east side of the wall are noticeably more polished, chic and technologically advanced than many in the west.

But as economies and livelihoods have converged, the political differences between east and west have sharpened, to a profound and alarming degree.

If you look at an electoral map of Germany from the 2017 national election or any of the state elections that have occurred since then, you are looking at a starkly visible dividing line between two very different countries.

On the left side, in the states of the old West Germany, there are now essentially two major parties: Chancellor (and East German) Angela Merkel's moderately conservative Christian Democratic Union, and the Greens - the ecological party that is now part of the government in 10 of Germany's 16 states, and is widely expected to overtake the Social Democrats as the second largest national party in next year's election.

The right side of the map has also recently become a two-party system. The two major eastern parties, which now dominate most state legislatures across the region and represent the most federal MPs sent from the east, are the Left Party - a direct descendent of the communist regime that ruled the GDR - and the Alternative for Germany (AfD), an ultranationalist movement that became a major party in the east after 2015 by adopting harshly antiimmigrant policies and outspoken climate-change denial. Those views have made it a favourite of angry men in less urban areas where immigrants are rarely seen (it had a moment of success in some western states, as a protest vote, but has largely fizzled outside the east).

In Rostock, I met with federal MPs from both of these parties, and I was struck by their similarity. The extreme-left parliamentarian deplored the racism of his right-wing counterpart and had a more polished tone (and did not hide his pre-1989 role in the communist hierarchy), while even the supposedly moderate AfD parlia-

mentarian often sounded like someone writing all-caps comments on a conspiracy-theory YouTube post. But they shared views on Vladimir Putin's Russia (favourable), on the European Union and its currency (opposed), on immigration (unfavourable) and, notably, on the legacy of reunification - both parties characterize voters in the east as victims.

Why does this former country, almost 30 years after it ceased to exist, still maintain its own, increasingly extreme, political profile?

The "economic victims" argument no longer makes much sense - the people voting AfD here don't tend to be poor or unemployed, just older and less educated and male. But that itself is significant: older, less educated men are an inordinately large population group in the former East Germany. "During the 1990s and 2000s, far more women than men left this state," says Roland Rau, a demographer with the Max Planck Institute. "For example, at least 40 per cent of the women from the 1977 birth cohort ended up leaving Mecklenberg-Western Pomerania," and those who left tended to be more educated.

One eastern German politician, the Saxony integration minister Petra Kopping, argues in a muchdiscussed new book that the region is suffering a "crisis of masculinity" that is turning groups of men toward antisocial voting patterns.

But others suggest that those 41 years of life in a walled-up, monoethnic society isolated from the outside world and unwilling to face up to its past reshaped the political perspectives of multiple generations in more fundamental ways. Geographer Wolfgang Richter, who as Rostock's commissioner for foreigners in the early 1990s worked heroically to prevent the city's infamous anti-immigrant riots from turning deadly, says there was "a foundation of intolerant and racist views in the GDR years," that were allowed to flourish once the Wall came down.

"There was barely any coexistence with other nationalities in those years," he tells me. "People of my generation, our grandparents were Nazis, and they sent certain messages to their grandchildren - it was a scapegoat mentality, one that definitely existed in the GDR before 1989. And then the whole thing was made worse by the sudden radical change of reunification - suddenly there was a great degree of frustration and displacement that made all these feelings bubble to the surface."

When the Berlin Wall opened, it was like a pressure valve - but what escaped was a whole generation's positive energy, its ambitious young people, its educated women and people eager to find variety and difference. Now, 30 years later, that movement is finally reversing, jobs and creative people are returning eastward.

But the psychology of the border remains a dominant force in many minds here, and it will be at least another generation before that wall fully comes down.

Associated Graphic

People celebrate at the Berlin Wall during the official opening of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin in December, 1989.

© PATRICK ARTINIAN/CONTACT PRESS IMAGES


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British co-founder of Syria's White Helmets found dead in Turkey
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Tuesday, November 12, 2019 – Page A1

LONDON -- James Le Mesurier, a former British soldier who rose to prominence as the co-founder of the White Helmets group that rescued victims of Syria's civil war, was found dead Monday outside his apartment in Istanbul.

The cause was not immediately known. Mr. Le Mesurier was in his 40s. Turkey's official Anadolu news agency reported that he had fallen from the balcony of his home in the central Beyoglu neighbourhood.

Mr. Le Mesurier's White Helmets have been credited for saving thousands of lives but now they and the cause from which they sprang - a Syria freed from the violent regime of Bashar alAssad - are on the verge of defeat.

Mr. al-Assad's forces have regained control of most of the country, and his military and its Russian allies continue to treat the White Helmets rescue teams, which operate in rebel-controlled areas, as legitimate military targets.

Three days before his death, the Russian Foreign Ministry publicly accused him of being a British spy with connections to alQaeda, the latest broadside in a long and vicious made-inMoscow disinformation campaign. Turkish police have opened an investigation.

Mayday Rescue, a non-profit organization founded by Mr. Le Mesurier, posted a statement asking the media to give his family privacy and to "refrain from unnecessary speculation about the cause of his death until the investigation is completed."

The White Helmets, which are formally known as Syrian Civil Defense, confirmed the death through their Twitter account.

"We also must commend his humanitarian efforts which Syrians will always remember," the statement said.

Raed Saleh, the group's leader, said the White Helmets would continue their work despite the loss of "a real friend" in Mr. Le Mesurier.

In a series of interviews over the past 16 months, Mr. Le Mesurier, a charismatic raconteur who was well known to diplomats and aid workers across the Middle East, told The Globe and Mail how he had helped shape a ragtag group of Syrian volunteers into what became the White Helmets, an organization that would go on to be credited with saving tens of thousands of lives.The group was nominated for the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize.

Mr. Le Mesurier, a father of two, had long been a thornin the side of both the Kremlin and Mr. al-Assad. The White Helmets, who carried out their rescue missions with GoPro video cameras attached to their namesake headgear, played a critical role in mobilizing international criticism of the Syrian regime and its Russian allies by providing evidence of atrocities, including the use of chemical weapons and barrel bombs against civilian areas.

Mr.Le Mesurier openly acknowledged having served in the British military,but said his career in intelligence was limited to asix-month secondment during a NATO mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina. He said the White Helmets had no affiliation with any of Syria's warring parties, although some co-operation was necessary to allow the rescue workers access to the scenes of recent attacks.

After leaving the military in 2000, Mr.Le Mesurier briefly worked for the United Nations before launching a new career in the non-profit sector, focused on helping stabilize countries recovering from conflict.

Syria became his primary focus following the 2011 outbreak of that country's civil war.

From the start of Syria's civil war, Western governments were keen to see the end of the al-Assad regime, but worried about providing direct military assistance to the rebel groups that opposed him, which included some of the religious fundamentalists who would later form the backbone of the Islamic State. Western governments favoured "democracy promotion" programs, including media training and good governance sessions, aimed at preparing Syrians for the day after the civil war ended.

The intention was good,but the effort did little to help those under daily bombardment by Mr. al-Assad's air force and artillery.In an interview, Mr.Le Mesurier, recounted a January, 2013, meeting in Istanbul that brought together Western donors and some of the Syrian recipients of the democracy assistance."One of the guys from Aleppo picked up a laptop and put it over his head and said,'I don't want a [expletive] laptop when I'm being bombed every day.'" After some brainstorming, those present at the Istanbul meeting - including Mr.Le Mesurier and Mr.Saleh, the future leader of the White Helmets-decidedto focus on supporting what many Syrians were already doing in an ad hoc fashion around the country: looking for survivors in the wake of regime attacks, and doing what ever they could to save those still living.Turkish earthquake-response teams were brought in to teach the Syrians the basics of how to save as many lives as possible in the wake of a catastrophe.

Western governments,including Canada, which provided the White Helmets with $7.5-million in support over two years, bought into the idea.

The first group of Syrians to receive the earthquake-rescue training was sent back with GoPro cameras so that they could record their activities for training purposes. It was only when the videos came back,Mr.Le Mesurier said,that the newly formed White Helmets realized another important role they could play.

"When we saw the footage we realized this was a really good way of being able to show more people what was happening," he said.

Videos recorded by the White Helmets, and distributed through the group's Twitter account, helped reveal the suffering of the people of Aleppo during the four-year-long siege that eventually saw the regime, aided by countless Russian air strikes, retake the largest city to have fallen under opposition control. Another White Helmets video in April, 2018, alerted the world to the use of chemical weapons in the city of Douma,leading to punitive American cruise missile strikes against Mr. al-Assad's forces.

The impact of the White Helmets' videos was made apparent by the ferocious disinformation campaign launched by the Russian and Syrian governments.State media in both countries painted the White Helmets as an improbable alliance between Western intelligence and Islamic extremists.

In a Friday news conference, Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova said that Mr.Le Mesurier was a"former agent of Britain's MI6,who has been spotted all around the world."

Some of the accusations were wilder: "Moscow Urges London to Clarify Whether Founder of 'White Helmets' Had Links to Al-Qaeda," read a Friday headline on the Kremlin-run Sputnik news service.

Mr.Le Mesurier saw such propaganda attacks as testament to the effect the White Helmets were having.

The al-Assad regime and its Russian allies wanted the world to see Syria's war as a black-and-white struggle between the government and extremist groups such as al-Qaeda and the Islamic State.

"Everytime the world was looking at a video of the White Helmets responding to a bombing,it undermined that narrative," Mr. Le Mesurier said over lunch in London late last year. "So what do you do? You undermine the White Helmets and the governments that have been supporting them.Inside Syria,the message that is pushed is that the White Helmets are an MI-6/CIA construct....In the West, you say the White Helmets are alQaeda and that all these rescues are faked."

Mr. Le Mesurier rejected the idea that Mayday Rescue and the White Helmets were anything but what they appeared to be - a group of people trying to do something good in the middle of a horrific war. "Our motto was simple: what will save more lives?"

In recent months, most of Mr. Le Mesurier's communications with The Globe were focused on the plight of 10 White Helmets members and their families, 48 people in all,who remain stranded in the Azraqrefugeecamp in Jordan.

The families, who were evacuated from Syria as part of a cloak-and-dagger operation last summer that Mr.Le Mesurier helped co-ordinate along with Canadian diplomats, were initially told they would be resettled to Canada, but have been left in Azraqbe cause of unspecified security concerns.

"Everyone involved up and down the chain is hopeful it's going to be resolved ASAP,"Mr.Le Mesurier wrote in May.

In a tweet, Global Affairs Canada expressed sympathy with Mr.Le Mesurier's family."Mr.Le Mesurier served with dedication, his loss will be felt deeply. His critical role in July 2018 White Helmets rescue brought many to safety in Canada."

Associated Graphic

Members of the White Helmets walk in the rubble outside a health facility that was hit by a reported Russian air strike in the town of Urum al-Kubra, Syria, on Aug. 31.

OMAR HAJ KADOUR/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Above left: A Turkish police officer leaves the Mayday Rescue offices on Monday in Istanbul, after the discovery of the body of the organization's co-founder, James Le Mesurier. BULENT KILIC/AFP VIA GETTY IMAGES

Above middle: Members of the White Helmets recover a body from the rubble of a building after a reported government air strike in the village of Benin, about 30 kilometres south of Idlib in northwestern Syria, on Aug. 20.

ABDULAZIZ KETAZ/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Above right: The sealed entrance of a home reportedly belonging to James Le Mesurier, where he was found dead in the Karakoy district of Istanbul on Monday. BURAK KARA/GETTY IMAGES BURAK KARA/GETTY IMAGES

Left: The White Helmets carry an injured man as Jaish al-Islam fighters and their families arrive at the Abu al-Zindeen checkpoint near the northern Syrian town of al-Bab in April, 2018. ZEIN AL RIFAI/ GETTY IMAGES

Middle left: Syrian refugees stand in front of their homes at Azraq refugee camp in Jordan, in December, 2018. Most of White Helmets co-founder James Le Mesurier's recent communications with The Globe were focused on 48 people who remain stranded in the camp. MUHAMMAD HAM/REUTERS

Middle right: Mr. Le Mesurier talks to the media during training exercises in southern Turkey in March, 2015. ASSOCIATED PRESS


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Treasures from the past
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Vancouver museum exhibition features family's belongings and heirlooms looted during the Second World War
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By MARSHA LEDERMAN
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page R10

VANCOUVER -- F or about 20 years, the boxes sat in the storage room of Michael Hayden's Vancouver home, unopened. He had found them in a basement room behind the garden of his father's home in Cape Town, South Africa, after his sudden death in 1984. They had been shipped there, originally from Germany, and had never been opened by his father either, not since the boxes had arrived after the Second World War. There were about 15 of them, all from the 1940s. The information inside would give Hayden - one of the world's foremost geneticists - a new purpose in life.

"I could feel the gravity of what was in there," Hayden, 67, says. "I knew there was going to be a big burden and an obligation to come from opening them. And I wasn't ready. I think I was fearful, too. I knew this was going to be a burden, and a very personal burden."

Gertrud and Max Raphael Hahn, Hayden's grandparents, were wealthy residents of Gottingen, Germany, a university city that has been home to dozens of Nobel Prize laureates. Max ran a successful business that included a leather factory and a real estate empire; the Hahns owned about 40 per cent of the buildings in the town. They were prominent members of the Jewish community - Max was president of the synagogue - and deeply patriotic Germans: Max had been a senior procurement official for the German army during the First World War.

And they were great collectors - of art, fine furniture, antiques - and a collection of Judaica that is said to have rivalled those of the Rothschilds and Sassoons.

At about 2 a.m. on Nov. 10, 1938, Nazis armed with axes broke into the Hahn home, smashing doors and windows, destroying their belongings and forcing Max and Gertrud half-naked into the street, while bystanders hissed and yelled, calling them "filthy Jews" and "pig Jews." Their home was ransacked and many of their possessions were stolen.

This horrific night became known as Kristallnacht - the night of broken glass - a government-sanctioned series of Nazi pogroms in Germany and Austria that saw hundreds of synagogues burned, Jewish businesses destroyed and Jewish cemeteries desecrated. There were dozens or hundreds of deaths (the number is disputed) and some 30,000 Jewish men sent to prisons and concentration camps.

Max was one of them.

He was sent to jail for nearly nine months, during which much of his property, including his silver Judaica collection, was confiscated. The family also sold possessions to the local museum, under duress, as they were stripped of their wealth and livelihood.

Even while in prison, Max worked for the return of his prized Judaica items, thinking they could help fund the family's future life somewhere outside Germany. He was not successful.

There were more pressing concerns. In 1939, the Hahns managed to get their children, Rudolf and Hanni, 19 and 17, to safety in England. In early 1941, they shipped some precious items that remained, including a piano and violin, and many documents to Sweden and Switzerland for safe storage in neutral countries.

By the time Max and Gertrud tried to leave Germany themselves, later that year, it was too late. In December, 1941, they were deported by train to a concentration camp in Riga, Latvia. Gertrud, who was diabetic and without her medication, may have died on the way in the cattle cars. It's believed Max was shot in the Bikernieki Forest in March, 1942, and buried in a mass grave, like thousands of other murder victims. No records of their deaths exist.

Michael Hayden grew up without grandparents. He had a vague notion that they had been killed during the Second World War, but he knew no details about their deaths and very little about them.

Those boxes, left unopened for all those years, held answers to questions he didn't know he had.

One night in the mid-2000s, at around 3 a.m., he went down the stairs of his Vancouver home and started opening them. He's not sure what compelled him that night. Was it his state of mind?

Was he ready to confront the past?

Did his curiosity finally win out over his fear? In any case, he felt ready to know more.

The containers held thousands of documents that painted a rare and urgent picture of life in Nazi Germany for a prominent Jewish family - his own.

Inside, Hayden found about 50 letters sent during the war between Max and Rudolf; petitions that Max had submitted in response to anti-Semitic laws enacted by the Nazis; and photographs and lists of the art and other objects that had been stolen from the Hahns or sold under duress while under Nazi rule.

Hayden, who doesn't speak German, hired a historian who is fluent in the language to help him deal with the contents. The documents were a treasure trove of information about his family, but they also contained clues - and evidence - about his grandparents' stolen property.

That's when he decided he would search for it.

The first time Hayden visited Gottingen, it was long before he knew about the boxes - or much of anything about his father's life. He was in his 30s, travelling with his father. They visited a childhood friend of Rudolf's, who was very welcoming. It was the first time Hayden had ever heard his father speak German. The man brought out a photo album from their shared childhoods. There they were as kids. Then, a few pages in, there was a photo of his father's friend, in an SS uniform.

Since opening the boxes, Hayden has been working with the Gottingen Museum and other German institutions for several years, looking for what is left of his family's treasures. There have been a lot of obstacles - restitution can be a fraught endeavour - but a few dozen items have been identified as having belonged to the Hahns. Last year, in a moving ceremony, the first of these treasures was returned - a remarkable silver gilt kiddush cup - one of very few items of Judaica seized by the Nazis that had not been melted down for the precious metal. The cup was discovered in a basement vault at a Hamburg museum in 2018 and returned to the family last November.

"I felt a sense of great triumph and justice," Hayden says. "It was a great occasion to restore that and to give some respect to [my grandfather] and an item that I knew he loved and he must have handled."

In three-dimensional silver, the cup depicts three scenes from the biblical story of Jacob. The date of its carving, 1757, is engraved on the base. There's a rude red number splashed next to it, assigned by one of its Nazi thieves.

This is one of the items being displayed for the first time at an exhibition that opened on Friday at the Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre. Treasured Belongings: The Hahn Family and the Search for a Stolen Legacy includes many extraordinary items that belonged to the Hahns, including a 17th-century Passover Haggadah and precious secular art, such as an original work by the artist Max Liebermann.

The museum was interested in creating the exhibition not just because of the Hahns' compelling, tragic story, but also because of the contemporary resonance.

Their story is a lens through which to view reconciliation and repatriation in the aftermath of catastrophic injustice.

The show also includes historical context, as well as family photographs and original letters. In one, written right after Kristallnacht - Nov. 11, 1938 - Rudolf, writing from Hamburg, tries to comfort and encourage his mother back in Gottingen. He ends it with a quote. "We will not let this get us down!"

Michael Hayden is a world-renowned medical researcher who has accumulated many titles and accolades over the course of his career. He is the founder and director emeritus of the Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics at the Department of Medical Genetics at BC Children's Hospital and the University of British Columbia, and Killam Professor and Canada Research Chair in Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine. He is one of the world's leading experts on Huntington's disease. He has been named to the Order of Canada, the Order of British Columbia and the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame, as well as many other honours. When I asked him about if he has unwittingly inherited characteristics from the grandparents he never knew, he paused and then said yes.

"And some of it is deeply comforting. Because I'm a deep collector and partly what I've done, in the eighties I started collecting DNA and body parts from patients who died of certain genetic diseases. And I did it very methodically. Today we have the largest DNA bank and organ bank in the world that is supporting global research into Huntington disease."

He also collects other things - including, similar to his grandfather, Haggadot (the books used during the Passover Seder).

What motivates Hayden's quest for his family's belongings is not financial restitution - or even the lost items themselves. He was eager to learn about Max and Gertrud and illuminate their identities, their individuality.

"I'm really driven from a perspective of wanting to rescue my grandparents from obscurity and wanting to restore them to their particularity and distinctiveness and to rescue them from complete anonymity," he says.

"These were just two of six million, my grandparents, but for me I wanted to get away from generalizations. ... I'm really just trying to understand: What's the genetic legacy? What's the legacy of courage and personality? Who were these people? And giving them a face.

"That's what's driving me. And somehow it's also a search for who I am."

Treasured Belongings: The Hahn Family and the Search for a Stolen Legacy is at the Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre until Nov. 27, 2020.

Associated Graphic

Gertrud and Max Hahn


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For parents of adults with autism, the battle isn't over
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Two decades after Ontario families first took the government to court to extend funding, seven are reconvening to fight new PC cuts
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By LAURA STONE
  
  

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Friday, November 1, 2019 – Page A15

ANCASTER, ONT. -- Michael Deskin stares at the computer screen, trying to calm himself as he watches The Jungle Book, the animated Disney film about a boy raised by wolves.

His mother, Brenda Deskin, asks him to move to the living room, where there is more room to talk.

"No, no, no!" Michael yells, his teeth starting to chatter, a sign that he is becoming anxious.

"What do you want? Look at Mummy."

He starts to hum. "I want blanket."

Michael makes his way outside, clutching a soft white blanket to his 6-foot-1, 205-pound frame. He rocks himself on the porch swing, as one of the family's three dogs, a petite pug named Petunia, weaves underneath his seat. A smile forms on Michael's lips.

Michael has severe autism. The 24-year-old lives at home in Ancaster, west of Hamilton, and requires constant supervision, either by trained specialists or, increasingly, his parents. He has beaten himself black and blue; run across parking lots; put a therapist in a headlock. He has recently taken to sticking his fingers down his throat until he gags or throws up. "You really can't take your eye off him for a second," Ms.

Deskin, 52, says. "Michael's behaviour has started to be getting too much for my husband and I for quite some time."

The young man's care - essentially how much treatment should be covered by the general taxpayer - is now at the centre of the latest battle between the autism community and Ontario Premier Doug Ford's government.

Michael's parents are among seven families of nine autistic adults who are suing the government for breach of contract and negligence after their funding - previously labelled "court-ordered" - was abruptly cut off this summer. Their fight raises difficult questions about fair treatment of autistic children, the limits of public funding and the duty of governments to honour past commitments. The government's autism advisory panel, which released its recommendations on Wednesday about how to fix the province's autism program for children and youth, said it was, in general, "concerned about the needs of autistic adults and we encourage the government to review this situation."

It's a battle the families fought and won once before. They were part of a larger group who went to court in 1999 to challenge the previous Progressive Conservative and subsequent Liberal governments over a policy that limited funding for behavioural therapy to children under the age of 6. Because of the group's advocacy, the government extended funding for all children to the age of 18.

In 2004, under a Liberal government, a court ordered Ontario to pay for autism therapy for the children of those families. The decision was successfully appealed two years later, but the government continued to fund the individual treatments at a total cost of about $1.5-million a year. It was part of an agreement made during the appeal process, with the money coming from outside the province's official autism program.

It continued for 15 years, the families contend, because a promised transition that would have allowed their adult children to receive equal services never materialized. In a letter to Ms. Deskin dated February, 2007, then-assistant deputy minister Alexander Bezzina wrote, "No changes would be made to the manner in which your son's program is currently administered nor to the funding amount unless you were completely satisfied with alternate arrangements." The promise was also repeated in two provincial auditors-general reports.

However, in February, the families received a letter from the Ministry of Children, Community and Social Services, formerly led by Lisa MacLeod and now by Todd Smith, telling them the money was set to end on Aug. 6.

The families were urged to apply for adult services under disability programs, which do not offer them nearly as much money or flexibility. For example, Ms.

Deskin, who manages the office for her husband, a dentist, said she used to be able to afford 80 hours a week of therapy for Michael, but that has been cut to about 30.

The seven families have retained Toronto law firm Henein Hutchison. Partner Scott Hutchison is working pro bono alongside human-rights advocate and Order of Canada recipient Mary Eberts, but the family is raising funds for the junior lawyer handling their case.

The government has not commented directly on the case, citing the legal action filed on Sept.

30.

Queen's Park has 60 days to respond and has suggested in statements that the cut-off is a question of fairness. In a May 9 letter to Ms. Deskin, government lawyer Robert Ratcliffe argues that the payments were "ex gratia" - a gift to the families as a matter of policy, not contract. The government has already doubled funding for the Ontario Autism Program, which funds children's services, to $600-million, after significant outcry from the community.

"We are committed to giving adults with developmental disabilities, including autism, the support they need to fully participate in their communities," Mr.

Smith's spokeswoman, Christine Wood, said in a statement. Autistic adults are also eligible for funding through the Passport program, which helps adults with developmental disabilities live more independently.

Laura Kirby-McIntosh, president of the Ontario Autism Coalition, said she supports the families' fight. In her view, the government is obliged to honour its original commitment to fund treatment until there's an alternative.

She praised the families as the "original autism warriors," who fought for treatment for all autistic children. "They weren't doing it just for their kids, they were doing it for all kids. So they got that court-ordered settlement, and I think it was well earned," she said.

"Am I aware that, yes, it's more than some families get? Yes, but that's not their fault."

Disability advocate and lawyer David Lepofsky, chair of the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act Alliance, said that if the families were promised ongoing payments, they should continue to receive them.

"For me, the wrong question is: Is it fair to get it when others don't? The right question is: Is it fair for others not to be getting it if these individuals have shown that they need it and benefit from it just as others would?" he said.

In total, Ms. Deskin says she's out about $150,000 a year, money that was used to pay for trained staff and consultants to work one on one with Michael. Waiting lists for group homes in the province stretch into the thousands, with only a few hundred new spots a year. Michael does get about $1,100 a month under the Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP) and, since the funding cut-off, has received an additional $1,000 a year in Passport funding, for an annual total of $39,000 in Passport support, Ms. Deskin says.

She says Michael has been assessed as needing two-on-one care, but the family has never been able to afford it. He also does not have overnight care.

After Michael's funding was cut off, the government directed her to Developmental Services Ontario (DSO), which helps adults with developmental disabilities connect with services and supports in their communities. But she was told there was no extra money for her family, and the DSO told her to go to the local Salvation Army resource centre. All they had to offer was a wall of gadgets and books about autism.

"It actually boggles my mind," she says. "You don't just abandon people. You don't abandon especially high-needs adults ... give them something and then take it away. You just don't do it."

For Robyn Wynberg, who is also part of the lawsuit, the changes are already affecting the lives of her twin autistic sons, Nathaniel and Sebastian. The young men, known as Nat and Bas, are 27, stand 6-foot-4 and 6-foot-5 and weigh about 230 pounds. Until recently, they lived on their own in a Toronto apartment with 24-hour assistance. Nat has much higher needs than Bas, who can carry on a conversation about his schedule and has a part-time job at a gym and delivers baked goods.

The family came to the independent living arrangement after Nat spent years in a group home.

At 16, he was sent to the home after he wrapped his arm around his mother's throat while she was driving on the highway. "Nathaniel can be a very, very dangerous person. He cannot not have support," Ms. Wynberg said.

This summer, Bas checked himself into the emergency psychiatry department at a Toronto hospital when he felt himself becoming anxious because of lack of support.

Since the funding cut, which totals about $350,000 a year for the twins, they have had to move homes for a few days a week, as the family can't afford full-time care. Ms. Wynberg, 58, is on stress leave from her teaching job, and their 64-year-old father, Simon, a musicologist, has battled leukemia for the past seven years. The young men also each receive $1,100 a month in ODSP money and $17,500 annually in Passport funding. The family is now paying almost $6,000 a month out of pocket.

"You have two potentially aggressive and violent people walking around the city. You have parents who are not able to work. You have parents who are getting more and more sick by the day," Ms. Wynberg said. "This can't end well."

Associated Graphic

Brenda Deskin is seen with her son, Michael, above, at their home in Ancaster, Ont., in October. Robyn Wynberg sits with her son Sebastian, one of two sons with autism. Both families are currently fighting the Ontario government after it told them they would no longer receive autism therapy funding agreed to more than a decade ago. PHOTOS BY TIJANA MARTIN/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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THE LURE OF THE FLY
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Fly fishing's supposed renaissance isn't really new, says Mark Kingwell, but it's welcome anyway
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By MARK KINGWELL
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page O1

Mark Kingwell is a professor of philosophy at the University of Toronto. His books include Catch and Release: Trout Fishing and the Meaning of Life and, most recently, Wish I Were Here: Boredom and the Interface.

S eventeen years ago, I stumbled onto a new passion. After years of trying, my brother Sean persuaded me to join him and our father on a fishing trip in the high lakes near Kelowna, B.C. I was a reluctant convert to angling - in an article and, later, short book I published about this trip, I repeated a mantra: "fishing is stupid." Not to be invidious, there was a section called "golfing is also stupid."

I still feel that way about golf, more or less, though I don't mind hacking around a course now and then as long as nobody is judging me. No length off the tee, but a decent short game.

Fishing, on the other hand, is now one of the ruling themes of my life. I have come to love and depend on the annual rhythm of the trout season, the equally metronomic beauty of casting a long fly line, and the indescribable thrill - though often described, including by me - of having your tiny surface-borne fly whacked by a big brown or cutthroat teased up from its low-water hideout.

They say that, in sports writing, the smaller the ball, the better the prose. Golf, baseball and cricket have produced the finest leisure literature we know, with the beautiful game, soccer, a close fourth if you include masters such as Eduardo Galeano. But volleyball, basketball and American/Canadian football have yet to find their towering voices. (Just to forestall potential angry responses: I agree that Friday Night Lights is pretty darn good. But it is no Beyond a Boundary or The Boys of Summer, still less The Eternal Summer.)

Literature about fly fishing is voluminous, and centuries long.

Izaak Walton's deathless The Compleat Angler has spawned a library, but Dame Juliana Berners was writing about fishing in the 14th century, well before Walton's early 17th.

Fishing is as old as the Bible in the West, and honoured in the Babylonian saying that the gods do not deduct from our allotted span the days spent fishing.

My own tiny contributions include my aforementioned book, in retrospect the awkward work of a beginner, and then some more recent efforts in magazines including that most elegant of periodicals, Gray's Sporting Journal, publication in which has brought me more pride than placing an essay in the famously picky Journal of Philosophy.

Fishing educates desire, among other things.

Which brings us, by a crooked line, to the present.

Anglers and non-anglers could not help but notice a recent New York Times article that suggested fly-fishing was displacing birdwatching as the millennial hobby of choice in these screen-dominated days.

I will go on record as admitting I did not know birdwatching was even a thing among youngsters, but I guess Jonathan Franzen can take some credit there - although, for my money, the sage of that pursuit is the late Graeme Gibson, a true conservationist. I happened to hear his voice not long ago in a repurposed conversation with Michael Enright as I was driving home from Jackson's Point, Ont., where I had scattered my mother's ashes. His wisdom spoke not just to our sadly disappearing birds, but also to the heedless human decision-making that has brought us here.

Anyway, since The Times article appeared, people have asked me what I think about the "new trend" of fly-fishing. My responses have broken into four main parts.

First, trend pieces, and indeed trends, are always pretty silly. If younger people are taking up fly fishing, great - I hope they enjoy it, and commit to the conservation efforts that all principled anglers bring to the water. The reason we happily pay licence fees is because we know that the gathered revenue helps preserve ecosystems that give us joy. Likewise the catch-and-release, singlebarbless-hook rules that govern some of the best rivers and streams on the continent. This isn't just difficulty for its own sake, although it is surely very difficult to bring in a large brown on a barbless hook. It is, rather, a gift to everyone, present and future.

Second, though, if you think fishing will cure your screen addiction, or technological immersion, because you have to put down your phone and take up silken line and silver hook (that's Donne, for those keeping score) - well, think again.

You can't solve your ills on the water, you can only confront them. As sports coaches like to say, games build character, but they also reveal it. They say a round of golf will tell you more about a person than would be revealed in 10 conversations. A half-day on the water will do the same, with falls and hookwounds thrown in.

Third, we've been here before.

Whenever something makes it into The New York Times, it's a pretty clear sign that it is old news. Or, if that's too harsh on the Gray Lady, consider the last time fly-fishing was big news: It was just after the release of the 1992 film A River Runs Through It, based on Norman Maclean's 1976 novel of the same name - what some Montana guides still derisively refer to as "the Movie." The slim book itself is modest and lovely, the film grandiose and bloated.

Of course, Brad Pitt is at his most handsome, and there are memorable themes of fathers and sons and Indigenous racism; but the fishing scenes are duff. In one Montana lodge, I saw a poster of the film, with Mr. Pitt's character executing the "shadow casting" that made his brother admire him as an artist. Yet the illustrated casts were absurdly contrary to the laws of physics, and shadow casting is just false casting - likely enough to scare a fish off, not bring it closer. My late friend Paul Quarrington, himself a deft angler, used to say that the best fly you can have in your box is the one that stays in the water longest.

Fourth, yes, there is a class system in fly-fishing, just as there is in golf and skiing and other pursuits that swap money for experience. So I can tell you that I own 13 fly rods, in different lengths and weights, including a split-cane one given to me by the writer Luc Sante, who got it as a wedding present long ago and never used it. I have six reels and dozens of flies, not to mention five flasks, 11 knives and two pairs of binoculars. I have fished for trout, steelhead, walleye, perch, bass, pike and bonefish in British Columbia, Ontario, Montana, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Kent, Hampshire and the Bahamas. New Zealand, Argentina and Scotland are on the wishlist.

But I can also tell you that, while my pals now say I cast better than the brother who got me into this state, I still can't double-haul with any reliability, and I miss hook sets as often anybody else in their mid-50s. I have created leaders and tippet full of "wind knots," that euphemism we use to describe sloppy casting; and not long ago, with a big cutthroat trout on my fly, I engaged a full-drama goofy slackstick routine that almost cost me the photo op. I have fallen in rivers and lakes more than once, and ended up in the hospital twice. (Dislocated shoulder and bone-deep laceration, if you're keeping score about that.)

Ars longa, vita brevis, the saying goes, derived from some even more euphonious Greek penned by Hippocrates. The craft is long, but life is short. We're all beginners, even when we hint at expertise.

One reviewer of my original fishing book thought I sounded pretentious, like someone who "fished wearing a beret." I haven't worn a beret since leaving the Boy Scouts in 1977 and I can't imagine any angler favouring one. I wear a battered baseball cap I've had since 1999. I don't think it's pretentious to think about what you're doing in any terms that make sense to you. I happen to think fly-fishing is beautiful - not a poesis but a techne. And yeah, I prefer single malt whisky to rot-gut in my flask, and I know that all my fishing buddies are excellent cooks who will produce gourmet meals at the end of each day's streamstalking. What can I say? I'm blessed. But that blessing takes nothing away from anyone else's style: This is not a zero-sum game. Be a trout bum if you want, I won't judge.

So I hope these new millennial anglers, if they really exists outside the lines of The New York Times, will join us in a lifetime of conservation, fellowship and happiness. I imagine some will let dust gather on their rods before they even darken the cork of the handle.

That's okay with me. If there is peace and reflection on the water, everyone wins.

And here's a small tale from just a few months before the Times story appeared. Some downtown Toronto design-company guys, young people I would have stacked away as trendy urbanites, invited me onto their fly-fishing podcast, So Fly. These boys are millennial Canada: smart, racially diverse, funny.

They also fish like masters. They don't need the imprimatur of The New York Times, or me, or anybody else. They just love to fish.

Amen.

Listen, think, gear up and get wading. That's all, and that's everything.

Associated Graphic

Salmon flies from the book Favorite Flies and Their Histories by Mary Orvis Marbury, 1892 PUBLIC DOMAIN


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One nation, under Turkey
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The invasion of Syria is part of the country's drive toward a radical new identity
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By CINAR KIPER
  
  

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Saturday, November 2, 2019 – Page O3

Turkish journalist based in Vancouver A little more than three years ago, a small faction within the Turkish military attempted to overthrow the government. The coup would fizzle out by morning, after claiming more than 200 lives, but that wasn't certain in the middle of the night when Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan declared it "a gift from God."

It really was the gift that kept on giving. As Turkey's Reichstag Fire - both metaphorically and almost literally - it served as justification to arrest, purge and blacklist tens of thousands without due process, and all but guaranteed the passing of a referendum greatly expanding the powers of the president. A century's worth of institutions were overhauled in less than a year, but the coup didn't accomplish everything Mr. Erdogan and his allies hoped: It had failed to unify an ideologically polarized country.

So the state tried to force it, mobilizing media and entertainment to hype national solidarity, renaming entire towns and landmarks after coup victims, staging massive democracy vigils and inventing what it hoped would become the country's most important national holiday. But the half of the country in the opposition was simply going through the motions. It didn't feel like their fight as much as a power struggle between two religious conservative former allies: Mr.

Erdogan and the exiled cleric Fethullah Gulen.

But what the coup failed to sell, the Kurds could deliver.

They were already established bogeymen since the eighties, and Turkish anxieties weren't entirely baseless - the country had been fighting a 35-year insurgency by Kurdish separatists at a cost of more than 40,000 lives. It wasn't too hard to reframe the national emergency from religious versus religious to Turk versus Kurd.

The process had already begun a year earlier. After a poor electoral performance by the ruling party in mid-2015, the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) was provoked into reigniting dormant violence, and a do-over election five months later saw the ruling party comfortably regain its majority. And the coup only accelerated the conflict. Just one month after the putsch, Turkey would launch its first of three incursions into northern Syria against Syrian Kurdish forces. A month later, Ankara would remove elected opposition mayors in many of Turkey's Kurdish districts and replace them with appointees. A month after that, the leaders and MPs of the left-wing, pro-Kurdish Rights party would be arrested on terrorism charges. Hostility would snowball over the next three years, to the point when Turkey's third and latest incursion into northern Syria last month was met with overwhelming national fanfare. Everyone from schoolchildren to the national soccer team and even contemporary art fairs were clamouring to support the troops, and thus by extension the government. An amazing turn of fortune for an administration that had been harshly rebuked in municipal elections just a few months prior. Not only did most of the major cities flip to the opposition, but the government embarrassed itself further by losing the largest city, Istanbul, twice after it arranged a do-over election.

From the outset, it looks like this latest Operation Peace Spring - as in water source, not season - is just about cultivating nationalist fervour to regain lost political capital. Plus, there is the added benefit of driving a wedge between opposition parties.

With two of Turkey's three opposition parties supporting the operation while the pro-Kurdish Rights party is singled out and targeted by the authorities, the nascent partnership so essential to opposition victories earlier this year has now been compromised.

But those are just the immediate benefits to a much longerterm plan to engineer a new identity for Turkey. More specifically, there are two concurrent engineering projects at work, one in Syria and the other in Turkey, and seeing what is playing out in the former reveals what to expect from the latter. As soon as the White House green-lit the Turkish incursion, the world focused on two angles: U.S. President Donald Trump's betrayal of the U.S.'s Syrian Kurdish partners, and their imminent genocide at the hands of Turkey. Understandable, as the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) had been an invaluable partner in the fight against the Islamic State and rightfully earned considerable global sympathy. But the SDF was also closely affiliated with Turkey's own separatist PKK, a group designated a terrorist organization by not just Turkey but also the U.S. and European Union. That is why the international and Turkish narratives are so divergent. The former portrays Turkey's fight as against Kurds as a whole, whereas Turkey insists it is only against one militant organization.

"This is not a move against the Kurds," presidential spokesman Ibrahim Kalin told CNN in the first days of the operation. "Turkey doesn't have any problem with the Kurds. We are fighting against a terrorist organization that has killed and oppressed the Kurdish people as well."

Yet, even though the operation is justified in terms of security concerns, Turkey has made no secret of its plans for demographic engineering in the region, which will affect SDF and civilians alike. The stated objective of Peace Spring is to drive the SDF from a 30-kilometredeep strip along the border, then move in about two million of the 3.5 million Syrian Arab refugees currently hosted in Turkey. Thus, Ankara would not only weaken any future Kurdish claims for territorial autonomy or independence, but also reduce its politically costly refugee burden.

A glimpse of what to expect for northeastern Syria is already available in the city of Afrin, an isolated predominantly Kurdish enclave in northwestern Syria taken by Turkish forces during its previous incursion in early 2018.

A UN report after the operation noted: "The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is concerned that permitting ethnic Arabs to occupy houses of Kurds who have fled effectively prevents the Kurds from returning to their homes and may be an attempt to change permanently the ethnic composition of the area."

In any case, Peace Spring proceeded rapidly, killing hundreds and displacing tens of thousands in a week, and soon ceasefire agreements were reached with foreign powers, first with the United States, then with Russia.

Turkey got at the diplomacy table what it had set out to accomplish militarily: the evacuation of the SDF from the 30-kilometre strip.

But the demographic engineering isn't just about ethnicity; it's also about ideology and lifestyle. The SDF and PKK are leftwing and secular, a major annoyance for Turkey's religious conservative government. "It's really an irony of history that the United States has picked up a Marxist-Leninist organization in Syria as its ally," Mr. Kalin said in the aforementioned CNN interview.

Meanwhile, Turkey's allies in Syria, and the people it would rather move in to replace the Kurds, are much closer ideologically to the government. Their enemies are even accusing them of being outright jihadis. That Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was found and killed by U.S.

forces last week in the western city of Idlib - a stone's throw from the Turkish border and under the gaze of Turkish observation posts - shows that Turkey is, at the very least, less concerned with religious extremists than it is of left-wing Kurds.

So it raised a few eyebrows when Mr. Erdogan explained rather bluntly during an interview last week that, "the people best suited for [the northeastern stretch] are the Arabs. It isn't an area suitable for the Kurds' lifestyle." Asked to clarify, he added, "because it's a desert," but eyebrows were still raised. After all, Afrin wasn't a desert and the Kurds weren't suitable for it, either.

This engineering in Syria also hints at what is planned for Turkey. The country was established as an aggressively secular republic a century ago after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Religious conservatives such as Mr. Erdogan were marginalized or worse, and their rise has been fuelled largely by a reactionary backlash against enforced secularism. He has made clear his intention to "raise pious generations," and resources are increasingly invested in religious education and other religious institutions. But secularism and religious conservatism are seen as mutually exclusive, and it's not easy converting members of one team to the other. That is where nationalism comes in, creating a backdoor that allows leaders to disseminate other ideas. In Turkey, nationalism isn't the end, it's the means to the end.

When Turkey's founders first introduced secularism to the conservative people of Anatolia, they were able to do so because of the nationalist fervour of the Turkish War of Independence waged mostly against the Greeks.

Now, if the future is to be pious, a similar existential threat needs to be cultivated and maintained.

Which is why there can be no peaceful resolution between Ankara and the Kurds. Get people worked up over Turkishness, and they might not notice why mosques are now mobilized in support of troops or why their kids are being directed toward religious schooling whether parents want it or not.

In 2023, Turkey will be celebrating its centennial, a date government officials bring up time and again with ominous undertones, a sort of watershed moment marking Mr. Erdogan's grand "New Turkey" project. If this new Turkey aims to bring about a radically new identity, likely a more religious and more anti-Western one, then it will be nationalism that gets it there.

A woman stands along the side of a road near the Syrian Kurdish town of Ras al-Ayn along the border with Turkey last month. The smoke plumes of tire fires billowing in the background are meant to decrease visibility for Turkish warplanes that are part of operation Peace Spring.

DELIL SOULEIMAN/AFP/GETTY IMAGES


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Brady may be GOAT, but Jackson's versatility still means trouble for New England
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By DENNIS WASZAK JR.
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Saturday, November 2, 2019 – Page S6

Lamar Jackson is off to a sensational start, with his arm and his legs putting up eye-popping numbers in his second NFL season. The Baltimore quarterback knows he has a long way to go, though, to become great.

He'll see Exhibit A across from him on the other sideline when the Ravens play host to Tom Brady and the undefeated New EnglandPatriotsonSundaynightin one of the more intriguing matchups of Week 9.

"Tom Brady is definitely the one at the top," Jackson said. "He hassixSuperBowls.He'sdefinitely the GOAT, definitely."

WhileBradyhasJackson'svote for the "Greatest of All Time" at quarterback, the New England starishardlysatisfied-evenwith all those rings and records. The Patriotsarelookingfortheirthird 9-0 start in franchise history, and the second in five years.

"You have to sharpen your tools," Ravens defensive tackle Brandon Williams said, "because they're definitely sharpening theirs."

It all starts with Brady, of course. But Bill Belichick's bunch has also been doing it with a downright stingy defence.

The Patriots lead the NFL in points allowed per game (7.6) and have scored as many defensive touchdowns as they have allowed: four.

"We'll see how good they are once we play them," Ravens tight endNickBoylesaid."Idon'tthink they've seen anything like our offence or like Lamar."

In fairness, few have.

ThedynamicJacksonistheonly player in the NFL with at least 1,500 yards passing and 500 yards rushing this season. Jackson also ranks 10th over all in the league with 576 yards rushing - more than seven teams' total.

"He's a major problem and everybody's had trouble with him," Belichick said. "It'll be a big challengeforus.Yeah,hecandoitall.

He can run, he can throw, can throw on the run, can extend plays. He's tough."

Week 9 began Thursday night, with San Francisco's 28-25 road victory over Arizona that lifted the 49ers to 8-0.

JimmyGaroppolothrewfor317 yards and four touchdowns for the 49ers. Rookie Kyler Murray threw for 241 yards and two touchdowns for the Cardinals (35-1).

Atlanta (1-7), Cincinnati (0-8), NewOrleans(7-1)andtheLosAngeles Rams (5-3) all have a byeweek break.

MINNESOTA (6-2) AT KANSAS CITY (5-3) All eyes will be on Chiefs quarterback Patrick Mahomes - and whether he's on the sideline or under centre.

Mahomes is recovering from a dislocatedkneecapthatkepthim out of Kansas City's past game, a 31-24 loss to Green Bay. If the reigning NFL MVP can't play, it'll againbeMattMoorestartingafter he had 267 yards passing and two touchdowns against the Packers.

Meanwhile, Kirk Cousins is coming off setting a Vikings single-game record for completion percentage (88.5), going 23 of 26 last week in a win over Washington. He'll lead a Minnesota squad that hasn't played at Arrowhead Stadium since 1974.

GREEN BAY (7-1) AT LA CHARGERS (3-5) Matt LaFleur is off to quite a start with the Packers, becoming the 19th NFL head coach and the first sinceJimHarbaughin2011towin at least seven of his first eight games.

Aaron Rodgers has been doing his usual: two straight games with 300-plus passing yards, three-plus passing TDs and no INTs. Aaron Jones has been a hugefactor:HewastheonlyplayerintheleagueinOctobertopost 250 or more yards rushing, and 250 or more yards receiving.

The Chargers are struggling on offence, even with the return of Melvin Gordon, so coach Anthony Lynn made a change by firing co-ordinator Ken Whisenhunt.

TAMPA BAY (2-5) AT SEATTLE (6-2) TheSeahawksarelookingtostart 7-2 or better for the fifth time in franchise history, and they'll face a Buccaneers team that's concluding a six-week stretch in which it hasn't played a game in its home stadium.

Jameis Winston is coming off hisfourthgamewith300ormore yards passing for Tampa Bay, but he also has 10 turnovers in his past two outings.

Russell Wilson leads the NFL with 17 touchdown passes this season, with only one INT. He'll also tie guard Chris Gray for the franchise record with 121 consecutive starts.

HOUSTON (5-3) VS.

JACKSONVILLE (4-4) The Texans are making their first trip to London, but Wembley Stadium has been a home-awayfrom-Jacksonville for the Jaguars, who are playing there for the seventh consecutive year.

Deshaun Watson is the first playerinNFLhistorywithatleast 15 TD passes and five rushing scores in his team's first eight games of season. The Texans won't have J.J. Watt on defence, though, after he was lost for the season last week with a torn pectoral.

Minshew Mania remains alive and well for the Jaguars, with quarterback Gardner Minshew leading rookies with 13 TD passes and a 98.8 quarterback rating. He has had a productive supporting cast around him, with Leonard Fournette leading the AFC with 791 yards rushing and wide receiverDJCharktiedfortheleague lead with six TD catches.

INDIANAPOLIS (5-2) AT PITTSBURGH (3-4) This marks the first meeting betweentheteamssince1997tonot feature the Peyton Manning for the Colts or Ben Roethlisberger for the Steelers.

JacobyBrissetthasdoneasolid job replacing the retired Andrew Luck, leading the Colts to three straight victories. Indianapolis has also gotten used to playing nail-biters:Everyoneofitsgames thisseasonhasbeendecidedbya touchdown or less.

Pittsburgh's Mason Rudolph is comingoffacareer-high251yards passing last week in Pittsburgh's victory over Miami. Rudolph will see if he can get things done on a Sunday, though, after being the firstQBinNFLhistorytohavehis first two career victories come on Monday Night Football.

TENNESSEE (4-4) AT CAROLINA (4-3) The Titans have won consecutive games by a combined seven points, and can thank quarterbackRyanTannehillinlargepart.

He has thrown for 505 yards with five TDs and one interception with a 115.3 passer rating in his two starts since replacing the benched Marcus Mariota.

KyleAllenremainsthestarting quarterback for the Panthers, but took his first career loss in a 51-13 blowout defeat against San Francisco.Healsothrewthefirstthree interceptions of his career. Allen will have to be on guard against the Titans, who forced four turnovers last week against Tampa Bay and are tied for second in the NFL with a plus-7 turnover margin.

WASHINGTON (1-7) AT BUFFALO (5-2) Struggling Washington is in jeopardy of opening 1-8 for the first time since 1998, and rookie Dwayne Haskins is to make his first career start, as Case Keenum isn't cleared from concussion protocol.

The Bills' defence could be in for a bounceback game after a 3113 loss to Philadelphia. Buffalo hasforcedatleastoneturnoverin sevenstraightgamesandwillface a Washington offence that has scored a combined 36 points in the past five games.

CHICAGO (3-4) AT PHILADELPHIA (4-4) Eagles quarterback Carson Wentz has thrown a touchdown pass in 11 consecutive games, tied with Seattle's Russell Wilson for the NFL's longest active streak. He'll face a Bears defence, led by sackhappy Khalil Mack, that held the Chargers' Philip Rivers to a season-low 201 yards passing while shutting down Los Angeles's run game and allowing just 36 yards on the ground.

Here's one subplot: The teams areplayingforthefirsttimesince the Eagles won the NFC wild-card game in Chicago last January, when Cody Parkey doubledoinkedafieldgoalinclosingseconds. Parkey is gone, replaced by Eddy Pineiro - who missed a 41yarder as time expired last week after clanging a 33-yarder off an upright.

DETROIT (3-3-1) AT OAKLAND (3-4) The Raiders are playing their first game in Oakland since Sept. 15, and maybe being back home will help change their fortunes. Jon Gruden's group is the sixth team since 1990 to lose back-to-back games while averaging at least seven yards per play.

The Lions are coming off a win over the Giants that snapped a three-game skid. Matthew Staffordisofftoaterrificoverallstart, as he's tied for the league lead with four games with at least three touchdown passes this season.

CLEVELAND (2-5) AT DENVER (2-6) Baker Mayfield and the Browns areonathree-gamelosingstreak, and turnovers and penalties are major culprits.

Cleveland turned the ball over on three consecutive plays in a loss last week at New England, and Mayfield leads the AFC with 12 interceptions. The Browns also lead the NFL with 70 penalties called on them.

Things haven't been going too well for the Broncos, either.

They're averaging just 15.6 points through eight games, with the 1966 and '71 teams the only Denver squads to put up less per game. With quarterback Joe Flacco out with a neck injury, Brandon Allen will make his first NFL start in his fourth season.

DALLAS (4-3) AT N.Y. GIANTS (2-6) The NFC East rivals meet for the second time this season, and will dosothistimeinfrontofaprimetime Monday Night Football audience.

The Cowboys have won five straight against the Giants, who havelostfourinarowoveralland been outscored 38-0 in the first quarter during their skid.

Quarterback Dak Prescott and the Cowboys have the NFL's No. 1 overalloffenceandcouldbeinfor a big night against New York's 28th-ranked defence.

N.Y. JETS (1-6) AT MIAMI (0-7) Jets coach Adam Gase returns to Miami for the first time since being fired by the Dolphins after a stretch in which he went 23-25 in the regular season with one playoff appearance.

This one figures to be a doozy, though, with the combined record of the teams' 1-13 - the NFL's worstenteringGame8since1969.

Jets quarterback Sam Darnold struggled in his past two games, with one touchdown and seven interceptions, and is playing with a sprained left thumb. New York will see a familiar face in the other huddle with Ryan Fitzpatrick starting again for the Dolphins.

Hewent13-14astheJets'starterin 2015 and '16.

Associated Graphic

Baltimore Ravens QB Lamar Jackson, seen in a game with the Seattle Seahawks last month, is the only player in the NFL this season with at least 1,500 yards passing and 500 yards rushing.

ALIKA JENNER/GETTY IMAGES

Tuesday, November 05, 2019
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A Mont Blanc glacier goes on death watch
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Fearing that a fast-moving flood of ice will come crashing down on them, geologists and locals in Italy have been watching warily to see how Planpincieux will fall - and what its likely demise reveals about the dangers of climate change
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Thursday, October 31, 2019 – Page A6

COURMAYEUR, ITALY -- Ice scientists talk about glaciers as if they are animate objects. They call them "frozen rivers." They "breathe in and breathe out" - that is, they breathe in snow and, when the temperature rises above freezing, breathe out water. Glaciers have personalities and are always on the move.

They live and die, and when they die, the scientists go into a sort of mourning, as if they have lost a dear friend. In August, scientists held a mock funeral for the Okjokull glacier, the first Icelandic glacier whose disappearance has been directly attributed to climate change.

Scientists who monitor the Italian side of Monte Bianco - better known by its French name, Mont Blanc - Western Europe's highest mountain (4,808 metres), are preparing for the funeral of Planpincieux, a glacier on the northeast stretch of the Mont Blanc massif. This lower part of the medium-sized expanse of Alpine ice has been sliding down the mountain at about 50 centimetres a day - Ferrari speeds by glacier standards. A massive destructive crash may be imminent.

The road beneath Planpincieux was recently ordered closed by the mayor of Courmayeur, the nearby Italian resort town, and a small number of houses were evacuated. "Its fall is possible any time," said Fabrizio Troilo, a glacier geologist at the Fondazione Montagna Sicura (Safe Mountain Foundation), the glacier monitoring institute in Courmayeur that has been holding daily news briefings on the glacier's ability to defy gravity, or lack thereof, since the late September road closing.

By Safe Mountain's calculations, as much as 250,000 cubic metres of the glacier ice is at risk of collapse. That's equivalent to the water in more than 100 Olympic-sized swimming pools.

The glacier is being monitored by a radar system, mounted in a resort parking lot beneath the glacier, that can detect precise movements day or night, regardless of the weather (the shape of the mountain valleys means any collapsing ice would flow to the left, avoiding the resort).

Safe Mountain began worrying about Planpincieux near the end of August, when geologists spotted a fracture in the glacier.

By early October, the fracture was about 150 metres long, 20 metres wide and 10 to 15 metres deep. When The Globe and Mail visited the site then, Planpincieux was, relatively speaking, galloping down the slopes. On Oct. 2, Sector A, roughly the lowest third of the glacier, had moved 80 centimetres in the previous 24 hours, while Sector B, the middle third, had moved 30 centimetres. The top third, Sector C, was stable that day but had shifted 15 centimetres in the previous daily reading.

Alpine glaciers are disappearing at an alarming rate in Italy, France, Switzerland and Austria.

Most estimates suggest that 50 per cent of their mass has vanished in the past century, and scientists put the blame on warming temperatures. The immediate threat from a collapsing glacier is fatalities. The Aosta Valley, where Courmayeur is located, and Switzerland have seen several deadly avalanches in recent decades. The good news is that the glaciers most vulnerable to collapse, such as Planpincieux, are being carefully monitored with sophisticated equipment. If they show signs of fragility, any inhabited areas below can be evacuated.

The longer-term dangers of vanishing glaciers are terrifying, too. When glaciers disappear, so does their store of water. The lack of Alpine runoff could trigger a watershed crisis that would damage everything from farming and hydro power to wildlife and tourism. Warming temperatures and waning snowfall are already hurting ski resorts in some parts of the Alps and the Dolomite mountains in Italy's extreme northeast. The Dolomite resorts are more vulnerable, as they are generally at lower altitudes than those in the Alps.

In an interview, Matthias Huss, professor of glaciology and hydrology at the Swiss university ETH Zurich, said the Alps may be close to "peak water" as glaciers melt and disappear, meaning the runoff volumes that are crucial to agriculture and river replenishment may be just a few years from going into reverse. "In the Alps, it looks like we are close to that tipping point," he said.

It turns out the monks in the monastery of the Great St. Bernard Pass, the generally snowclogged, high-altitude Alpine road that connects Switzerland's Valais Canton to Italy's Aosta Valley, were right. For about 200 years, the monks recorded daily high and low temperatures. Safe Mountain learned from them that the average temperature in the pass has climbed about 1.6 degrees.

The figure is roughly consistent with more recent and sophisticated scientific data. Various meteorological studies have concluded that average temperatures in the Alps have climbed two degrees since 1880 with the rise of planet-warming carbon dioxide emissions. That's about twice the global average (a recent report by Environment and Climate Change Canada said the Canadian Arctic has warmed 2.3 degrees since 1948, one of the fastest regional rates in the world).

Mont Blanc is turning into the poster boy of mountain climate change. Satellite images obtained by the NASA Earth Observatory show a shocking loss of ice cover along the massif since 1985 alone.

Historically, temperatures at the top of Mont Blanc almost never went above the freezing point in the summer. In the past summer, above-zero temperatures were recorded fairly often, with one reading of 7.

THE MELTING OF PLANPINCIEUX GLACIER OVER THREE DECADES GLACIER'S EXTENTS IN 1985 GLACIER'S EXTENTS IN 2019

Those readings came as Europe experienced a record-hot summer. In Gallargues-leMontueux, near Nimes, in southern France, temperatures peaked at 45.9 degrees - a French record.

Mr. Troilo says glaciers on the Italian side of Mont Blanc and in the Aosta Valley in general - 184 in total, five of which are being closely monitored - have always waxed and waned.

Records show that in the 1940s and 50s they experienced a rapid amount of ice loss, followed by a small expansion in the 1960s and 70s. "But since the mid-1980s, it's been continuous loss," he said. "There has been no inversion of the trend."

The trend has been noticed by local residents. "I remember when I was a kid that the ice would come all the way down the mountain," said Franco Di Domato, 46, an electrician. "We were used to the ice coming and going, but now it's mostly in retreat. Even if the winter precipitation is high, the [rising] summer temperatures melt the glaciers' snow cover."

Ice is vanishing everywhere in Italy. Until the 1990s, small glaciers could be found as far south as Gran Sasso (2,912 metres) in the Apennine range east of Rome, about 700 kilometres south of the Alps. Renato Colucci, a glaciologist at Italy's National Research Council, has called many of the glaciers in Italy and Austria "the walking dead" in media interviews. The World Glacier Monitoring Service says the area covered by Alpine glaciers dropped from 4,500 square kilometres in 1850 to just under 2,300 square kilometres in 2000.

Today's glacier coverage figure is probably far less. Glaciologists think glaciers on Alpine mountains of less than 4,000 metres are unlikely to survive over the long term.

Prof. Huss, the Swiss glaciologist, says glaciers are vital to the watersheds of mountain regions and their downstream rivers, such as the Po in northern Italy and the Rhône in southeast France, whose waters irrigate important agricultural regions. Once the glaciers have shrunk considerably, or are gone, their natural ability to take the hard edge off latesummer dry periods will go, too. He says that a quarter of the water at the mouths of the Po and the Rhône in August comes from glacier runoff.

"Glaciers release water when it is needed most, during the hot, dry periods," he said.

"That's a very important role. Once the glaciers are gone, we will need to replace their water-storage capacity, maybe by building more dams."

The scientists at Safe Mountain and the residents of Courmayeur and villages and hamlets nearby are on death watch for the Planpincieux glacier. By mid-October, its lower reaches were still sliding down the mountain fairly quickly - the Oct. 13 reading was 30 centimetres; on Oct. 25, it was 45. It could crash at any time, although the chances of its destruction can only recede as the fall temperatures drop.

In the meantime, the road beneath the glacier remains closed. The locals are well aware of the deadly power of avalanches, especially when they come loaded with rock debris. In January, 1997, a huge avalanche roared down from the Brenva glacier just beyond Courmayeur, destroying everything in its path, including 200-year-old trees. Two skiers were killed, and 10 injured.

"For Planpincieux, the risk is between now and the winter freeze," said Valerio Segor, director of natural risk management for the Aosta Valley. "This glacier is no longer immune to gravity."

Associated Graphic

SOURCE: NASA TILEZEN; NASA EARTH OBSERVATORY; OPENSTREETMAP CONTRIBUTORS; GOOGLE MAPS

A segment of the Planpincieux glacier is seen on the Italian side of the Mont Blanc massif area of Aosta Valley last month.

YARA NARDI/REUTERS

Matthias Huss, professor of glaciology and hydrology at the Swiss university ETH Zurich, speaks at a mourning ceremony for the Pizol glacier in Mels, Switzerland, last month.

DENIS BALIBOUSE/REUTERS

Top: Fabrizio Troilo, a glacier geologist at the Safe Mountain Foundation, monitors computer images of the quickly melting Planpincieux glacier last month. Above: Marco Belfrond holds an old photo of the glacier near Courmayeur, northern Italy, last month. The lower part of the expanse of Alpine ice has been sliding down the mountain at about 50 centimetres a day.

ANTONIO CALANNI/AP

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: NATURAL RESOURCES CANADA


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Northern Ontario's turtle tussle pits scientists against quarry builders
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Threatened species caught in the middle of conflict that is testing province's new policy on endangered wildlife protection
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By IVAN SEMENIUK
  
  

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Monday, November 4, 2019 – Page A1

To her colleagues, Gabriella Zagorski is the "turtle whisperer."

In the wetlands of Northern Ontario, she can approach a turtle with such stealth that it won't see her coming. "If you move really slowly, then they think you're a tree or something," said the 24-year-old field biologist. "It can take up to an hour sometimes."

Ms. Zagorski's patience paid off two years ago when she was working on her master's degree at Laurentian University in Sudbury and began looking for Blanding's turtles - a rare and globally endangered species - in a soggy pocket of provincial Crown land about 150 kilometres west of the city. Over two summers, she and her teammates found 56 Blanding's turtles concentrated in an area that measures about three kilometres across. The unexpected find makes the site one of the richest and most densely populated refuges for the species ever found in Canada.

Now, Ms. Zagorski's turtles are caught in a showdown between a company that is seeking to turn the site into a quarry and local residents who oppose the project. The dispute has divided the township of North Shore, a picturesque stretch of rocky inlets and forested wetlands along the northern rim of Lake Huron where Ms. Zagorski's study site is located.

This week, North Shore's municipal council is expected to ratify a 3-2 vote to rezone the area for mineral extraction. If the rezoning is approved, it will be up to the province to say whether the quarry can go forward.

The decision will become an early test of how species protection in Ontario is likely to be conducted under new legislation passed by Ontario Premier Doug Ford's government last June.

Inthemeantime,thebrewingcontroversyhas already taken some strange turns, including one last year when Ms. Zagorski and her supervisor, biologistandprofessorJacquelineLitzgus,found themselvesaccusedoffalsifyingtheirdataabout turtles at the site.

Those charges were levelled by a consulting firmthatwashiredtoconductanenvironmental assessment of the site on behalf of the quarry company. In a letter to Laurentian's vice-presidentofresearch,thecompanywrotethatthescientistshadcommittedresearchmisconductand askedtheuniversitytoinvestigate.Theletterwas copiedtomunicipalandprovincialofficialsconnected to the approval process for the quarry.

The university determined the complaint to be without merit and did not launch a misconduct investigation. Dr. Litzgus, a long-time faculty member who is known for her work in turtle ecology, saw the broadside as an attempt to undercut the scientists' credibility with decision makers."It'smind-bogglingtomethatthiscould have happened," she said. "Researchers shouldn't be attacked for collecting data that mightprotectaspeciesatriskinaccordancewith the law."

Without naming their accusers, the scientists included mention of a "defaming attack" when theypublishedtheirfindingsinOctober'sedition ofresearchjournalGlobalEcologyandConservation.Theynotedthat"afterseveralexchangesbetween lawyers, a letter of apology and a retraction of the accusations was received from the consultant."

Public documents obtained by The Globe and MailshowthatTullochEngineeringwastheconsulting firm that made the allegations in March, 2018, on behalf of the quarry company, Darien Aggregates, and its majority owner, Rankin Construction Inc. of St. Catharines, Ont.

The matter is playing out against a shifting landscape of provincial regulations.

Under Ontario's Endangered Species Act, proponentsofaprojectthatcouldnegativelyaffecta listed species can apply for an "overall benefit permit." To obtain such a permit, the proponent must take specific actions that helps the species elsewhere to an extent that outweighs any

negative effects the project might cause.

This year, the Ford government amended the act to provide another way for a project to get a green light. In principle, the change would allow the quarry to proceed as long as the company contributes money to a provincial conservation fund-anapproachthatcriticshavedubbed"pay asyouslay." Conservationgroupssaythechange has dangerously weakened Ontario's species laws.

"We are concerned that it will make the act nothing more than a paper exercise that doesn't actually protect species," said Josh Ginsberg, directoroftheEcojusticeenvironmentallawclinic at the University of Ottawa.

RhondaKirby,aNorthShoreresidentwhoopposesthequarry,saidsheisamongthosepreparing to challenge the council's intentions to rezone the site. She has launched an advocacy group, the North Shore Environment Resource Advocates, and a GoFundMe campaign to raise money for legal costs.

Ms.KirbyandherhusbandwerenamedinTulloch's letter of complaint in part because their propertybecameastagingareaforthescientists, which the consulting firm argued was a conflict of interest. Ms. Kirby said the support they provided had no bearing on the scientists' results andthatTulloch'scomplaintwasallaboutsilencing independent information about the site. "It was a schoolyard-bullying tactic to get the researchers to back off," she said.

Tullochhassincereferredquestionsaboutthe letter to Rankin Construction.

TomRankin,thecompany'schiefexecutiveofficer, who was also a signatory to the letter of complaint, dismissed the Laurentian study, which he said offered no new information. He added that the placement of the quarry would not affect the turtles.

"There's enough land that we don't have to touch their habitat," he said.

In an interview with The Globe, Mr. Rankin reiterated one of the letter's claims that the Laurentian study was biased because one its co-authors,DouglasBorehamoftheNorthernOntario SchoolofMedicine,isalsoaNorthShoreresident who opposes the project.

Dr.Litzguscounteredthatthestudydatawere collected using well-established protocols - the samethatshehasappliedforyearsatstudysites across the province. In their study, the scientists notedthatTulloch'srelationshiptoitsclientputs itinaperceivedconflictofinterestthatmayprevent it from presenting an accurate portrayal of endangered species at the site.

That dynamic is a familiar one in Canada, where companies seeking approval for projects are typically the ones who underwrite assessments, forcing consultants to walk a fine line betweentheirclients'interestsandenvironmental regulators.

Dr.Litzgussaidhergroup'sstudywasconducted with far more rigour and transparency than Tulloch'sassessment,whichyieldedahandfulof Blanding's turtles. And, contrary to the company's claim, it demonstrates there is an abundant population at the site that overlaps with and would be adversely affected by the quarry, she said.

Known for their boxy shells and bright yellow chins, Blanding's turtles once ranged widely across the Great Lakes region and U.S. Midwest.

Asagricultureandurbanizationhavesteadilyreduced their habitat, their numbers have declined.

Although they can live more than 75 years, theyareslowtomatureandtheireggs,whichfemales deposit and bury in loose soil, are frequentlydevouredbypredators.Thespeciesrelies on females surviving over many years to maintain a stable population. Studies suggest that road kills have played a particularly devastating role in reducing that population over the years.

Ms. Zagorski, who returned to the site in Septembertoretrievetransmittersshehadplacedon some of the turtles to track their movements, said the discovery of so many members of the species in one location underscores the importance of the habitat, even though it lies on the northern fringe of the turtles' traditional range.

"Thispopulationisagoodindicatorofwhatan untouchedareaalongtheCanadianShieldwould looklike,becauseit'sneverfaceddifficultieslike roadsandhabitatdestruction,"Ms.Zagorskisaid.

She added that northern wetlands are poised to become even more important for the threatened species as its range is affected by climate change.

Dr. Litzgus said she first learned of the site in the fall of 2016, when Ms. Kirby's son contacted hertoaskquestionsabouttheturtlesthere.Afew monthslater,Dr.BorehamranintoDr.Litzgusat an academic meeting and asked if she would be interested in investigating the site.

The suggestion turned into a project for Ms.

Zagorski,whichDr.Litzgussawasanopportunity to inform plans for mitigating the quarry's impact on local turtles and test their effectiveness.SheofferedtopartnerwithTulloch,writing in an e-mail that the project would help Darien satisfyrequirementsforanoverallbenefitpermit whileensuringthebestprotectionfortheturtles and their habitats. The consulting firm was receptive at first, but that was before anyone realizedjusthowmanyBlanding'sturtlesMs.Zagorski would find.

TherevelationcameasDarienwasworkingto persuade the township to support the development of a quarry for trap rock, a fine-grained stonethatisusedinbuildingroads.Theeffortincluded flying everyone on the five-member municipal council to the Niagara region to visit a quarry Darien operates there. The company has said a new quarry in North Shore could bring 20 to 25 jobs to the community when it is operating at full capacity.

Gary Gamble, a councillor who voted against rezoning,saidhewasnotpersuadedbythecompany'scasebecausehesaidmostnewrevenuein the community is now tied to retirees who are building homes on the waterfront.

"Economically,Ithinkaquarrywouldbedetrimental to that," he said.

Ms. Kirby said she is concerned that the council is underplaying the environmental consequencestheprojectwouldhave,addingthatTulloch's responses to questions about how they wouldreducethatimpacthavebeentakenatface value.

"Councilseemstothinkthat[theconsultants] have answered all the questions but they're not taking all the research into account," she said.

And while the Laurentian study is now published and available to decision makers, it's not clear how that evidence will be weighed at the provincial level.

Ms. Zagorski, who is now based at the Royal Botanical Gardens in Hamilton, recalled that when Dr. Litzgus first approached her about the project,herinitialreactionwastosay:"Youmean I'm going to spend two years studying these turtles and then they're all going to die?" Now, she sighs, "I just hope my data will help people make an informed decision."

Associated Graphic

'Turtle whisperer' Gabriella Zagorski, left, and field technician Shannon Millar wade through the wetlands of Northern Ontario with a Blanding's turtle.

GINO DONATO/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Ms. Zagorski, left, Ms. Van Den Diepstraten, centre, and Ms. Millar, prepare to search a wetland area in Northern Ontario for turtles. Ms. Zagorski says the wetlands are poised to become even more important for Blanding's turtles as their range is affected by climate change.

Ms. Zagorski had originally offered to partner with consulting firm Tulloch Engineering to help quarry company Darien Aggregates satisfy requirements for an overall benefit permit while ensuring the protection of the turtles and their habitats.

Master's student Gabriella Zagorski along with field technicians Shannon Millar, centre, and Heather Van Den Diepstraten search for Blanding's turtles in Northern Ontario. They found 56 of the globally endangered species over two years in a densely populated three-kilometre stretch that is now a proposed quarry site. PHOTOS BY GINO DONATO/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Blanding's turtles once ranged widely across the Great Lakes region and U.S. Midwest, but increasing agriculture and urbanization have caused their numbers to decline.


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Tim Miller's Judgment Day
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Director talks about tears, fears, killer robots and the return of James Cameron ahead of the Terminator: Dark Fate release
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By BARRY HERTZ
  
  

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Thursday, October 31, 2019 – Page A15

If there is a guiding ethos to the long-running Terminator series, it might be "no fate but what you make." But what if your fate is in the hands of someone else? That was the dilemma faced by director Tim Miller while making Terminator: Dark Fate, which marks the return of brand mastermind James Cameron, who hasn't been involved with the time-travel shenanigans of T-800 and the Connor family since 1991's Terminator 2: Judgment Day.

While Dark Fate is Miller's film - only his second feature after the filthy success of 2016's Deadpool - Cameron has a story credit, served as producer and retained final cut.

Ahead of the release of Dark Fate this Friday, Miller sat down with The Globe and Mail's Barry Hertz in Toronto for a candid discussion about tears, fears and killer robots.

I saw you present the first footage of Dark Fate at CinemaCon earlier this spring; you were very emotional onstage.

I know, it's quite embarrassing.

Well, I found it sincere, and much more so than any other filmmaker up there that week. How emotional has this experience been?

I put a lot into everything that I do, and I feel lucky and grateful all the time. And that's when I get choked up - when I start saying thank you to the people who helped me. I just feel lucky all the time, so it's hard not to cry.

Is that because you have an emotional attachment to the series itself?

I just cry. I cried when I thanked the crew on Deadpool. I'm crying when I'm behind the monitors filming. I can't tell you why. And I do love this franchise - it's an emotionally potent story about a mother protecting her son. I think there are many people who feel as much as I do, and maybe they just have better self-possession. But I still watch this movie and cry. Sometimes, it's because, "Oh my god, I can't believe that worked."

You directed second-unit action on the opening of Thor: The Dark World for Alan Taylor, who then went on to direct Terminator: Genisys. Did you talk with him about Dark Fate before signing on?

Small world. I didn't, though, because I don't really know him.

Even though I worked on the first three minutes of Thor, I spoke to him once, and it wasn't even about the movie. I am good friends with Laeta Kalogridis, though, who wrote Genisys, so I knew how the whole experience went down. And it didn't sound like it was a lot of fun for everybody.

So hearing that it was not a fun experience, you weren't wary of coming on to another Terminator movie?

No, because I thought that the reasons it wasn't such a pleasant experience were not things that would apply to me. I was scared for a different kind of reason. You know: You don't want to mess with Jim Cameron. And with Linda [Hamilton], you don't want to disappoint her, either. She saw the movie last night for the first time, and I only realized at the end of the screening how tense I was, because my jaw muscles were aching. I was lucky she liked it, and didn't kill me when the lights went up.

You're in a unique situation with Hamilton here; other than Dante's Peak, she hasn't really headlined a movie this big since T2, which was directed by her husband at the time, who is now your producer. Is there a natural tension there that needs to be worked through?

No, because Jim and Linda's relationship is cordial, but there's no her going to him above me. That would never happen. And she's wonderful - she and Natalia [Reyes] and Mackenzie [Davis] fell in love on-set. And I'm always on-set talking to people, because I want to have this really good atmosphere. I'm not a screamer. I like everyone to have a good time. And I want to hear you, because I don't feel like I have to win all the time.

On the question of collaboration, what was it like working with Cameron?

Because I'm not king? He has final cut. He shared it with David Ellison at Skydance. But really that means that Jim has final cut.

He gave an interview recently where he said that "the blood is still being scrubbed off the walls"... Yes, an apt metaphor. Look, Jim is the smartest guy in the room, always, but that doesn't mean he's always right. And I don't believe that I'm always right, and I think that's a benefit for a filmmaker because it invites a level of critique in the process. There are so many good ideas in the film that are not mine, and there are so many bad ideas that I would've pursued if somebody didn't feel enough freedom to say, "Tim, this isn't working."

That's the way I work. Jim is more autocratic, and more power to him. Who's been more successful than James Cameron? I can't argue with that. But I felt like I knew the characters in this movie, and I felt that I knew this movie. And you know, he wasn't there on the day. He wasn't involved, he didn't go to the sets, he doesn't know the dynamic of these scenes in the balance.

So anyway, we had some disagreements. And sometimes, he let me have it and sometimes he didn't. I probably would've changed more the [Skynet-like] Legion story that's in the future to be something more different than what we had in T2. It's a negotiation. On his end it's, "How beaten down do you want the filmmaker to feel?" and on my end it's, "How bad do I want the process to be?" But I always listen, and if it's a good idea, I take it. Why not listen to everybody's good idea? But it's tough to put your heart and soul into something for two years and care deeply about a point and not get to do it. I'm not sure I want to put myself in that position again. But that said, I'm very proud of the movie.

Looking at the credits of Dark Fate, there are five writers credited with the story, including Jim, plus Billy Ray's credit is added to the actual screenplay. For the average moviegoer, that number of writers is kind of a warning sign. Can you break it down?

I understand that, but it's not true in this case. What that translates to is that we're hoping to start a new arc of multiple films.

[Producers] wanted to simultaneously work on that whole universe, so our screenwriters' room was full of writers. David Goyer and Justin Rhodes were going to write the first one, Josh Friedman was going to do the second one, and Charles Eglee was going to write the third. But they wisely wanted everyone in the room to talk together about the full arc of things. Contract-wise, it works, because they were in the room when we broke the story for this whole thing.

Then, Justin and David wrote a first draft of the script, and it didn't quite work. We brought in Billy and he did a page-one rewrite. But we kept the general arc of the story, and we kept the action beats because we'd all agreed on what the set-pieces would be, and I'd been doing previsualization. In Goyer's case, he didn't really follow my action, which was problematic. But Billy was like, "I love this action, give it to me, and I'll make the characters sing." To me, it feels like the script is 21/2 writers: Billy and I, and then Jim wrote a few specific scenes, like the house where we meet T-800. So it's not as messy and chaotic as you might think.

On the topic of world-building, this is a direct sequel to T2. Which means it erases the other three movies and TV series [Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles] from continuity. What do you say to the fans who invested time in that universe?

Sorry? I don't know what else you can say. You have to make room on the stage for new characters, and that's going to piss people off. But to me, it was always Sarah Connor's story, and those other movies explored the John Connor story quite extensively. Maybe some people like the story of John. But I like Sarah better.

This interview has been condensed and edited.

Terminator: Dark Fate opens Nov. 1.

Associated Graphic

Director Tim Miller, seen at CinemaCon Paramount Pictures Exclusive Presentation at the Colosseum Caesars Palace in April in Las Vegas, says he loves the Terminator franchise because it is 'an emotionally potent story about a mother protecting her son.'

VALERIE MACON/AFP/GETTY IMAGES


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CANADIAN AIRMAN HELPED LAUNCH THE GREAT ESCAPE
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While detained in a POW camp during the Second World War, he was responsible for making sure guards didn't discover the tunnels, and covertly getting rid of dirt from the digging
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By FRED LANGAN
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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page B23

In the make-believe world of the 1963 film The Great Escape, Steve McQueen played a heroic baseball-playing American. While the story of the mass escape from a prisoner of war camp during the Second World War is true, that character never existed at the North Compound of Stalag Luft III. In real life, Canadian officer Bill Paton was the star pitcher on the baseball team at the POW camp, and while the Germans watched them play, the prisoners secretly scattered earth from the tunnels on the ball field.

Flight Lieutenant Bill Paton, who died in Toronto on Oct. 25 at the age of 101, was one of the last Canadian survivors of the Great Escape. The RCAF officer was not one of the 80 men who made it out through the tunnel in the largest Allied prison break in the war. Only three of the escapees, two Norwegians and a Dutch airman made it out of occupied Europe; the rest were recaptured.

The Great Escape infuriated Hitler, and he ordered the survivors shot; 50 of them were murdered, six of them Canadian.

There were about 800 Canadians at the camp, and all of them were members of the Escape Committee. Anyone who signed up for sports, baseball, hockey or even boxing, was automatically a member. Sporting events distracted the German guards, who loved watching Canadians play sports, especially boxing.

The Great Escape was 11 months in the planning.

The camp was for captured Allied airmen, mostly British, Canadian and from other Commonwealth countries, along with a few Americans and those of other nationalities. It was operated by the Luftwaffe, the German air force, near Sagan in Silesia, in what was then the southeastern part of Germany; today it is Zagan in Poland.

Ted Barris, a Canadian author who wrote the bestselling book The Great Escape: A Canadian Story, says the Allied airmen were treated relatively well in the camp, in part because the head of the Luftwaffe, Hermann Goering had been a pilot in the First World War.

That gave them the limited freedom they needed to carry out the construction of the escape tunnels. Baseball and other sports were part of the ruse.

"Since plenty of the officers had played international or professional sports, including ... Phil Marchildon and Bill Paton, the sports grounds at the North Compound buzzed with tournaments," Mr. Barris wrote. "But beneath that veneer remained a secret society of officers - about a third of whom were Canadian - intent on breaking out of the camp."

William Edgar Paton (pronounced PAY-ton) was born in Toronto on July 27, 1918. His father, James, was a printer who specialized in calendars; his mother, the former Josephine Beeny, was a housewife. He grew up on Bastedo Avenue in the east end of Toronto.

At Riverdale High School, Bill Paton was a star pitcher on the baseball team and after graduating he played for semi-professional teams.

"He played semi-pro in the Beaches [a Toronto neighbourhood]. He played there before and after the war," his son John says.

Mr. Paton joined the Royal Canadian Air Force in August of 1941.

Like many volunteers, he wanted to be a pilot, but when the RCAF discovered he was a math whiz, they suggested he become a navigator, since having a quick mind with numbers was essential in plotting flights between England and occupied Europe.

After training in Western Canada, under the Commonwealth Air Training Scheme, Flight Sergeant Paton was sent to England, where he was assigned to 431 Squadron, flying Wellington bombers out of Yorkshire. The Wellington was a twin-engine aircraft, and it was relatively slow compared with the four-engine "heavy" bombers, the Halifax and the Lancaster, which were just arriving in service for Bomber Command.

By the time of his seventh mission, he was a Pilot Officer, the lowest commissioned rank in the RCAF. On the night of April 16, 1943, his Wellington took off from the field in Burn, Yorkshire. It was shot down over Hochspeyer in Rhineland, in the west of Germany. The tail gunner was killed, and the five crew members who survived were taken as prisoners of war.

Plt. Off. Paton landed in a tree and injured his hips, which would bother him for the rest of his life.

His immediate problem was an angry German woman whose son had been killed in an Allied bombing raid. She tried to stab the Canadian officer with a pitchfork as he hung by his parachute in the tree. The injuries on his face from landing in the tree can be seen clearly in the photo on his prisoner of war ID card.

Plt. Off. Paton spent 25 months in detention as a prisoner of war.

For almost a year, he and the other inmates worked on an elaborate escape plan. The tunnels were known as Tom, Dick and Harry.

Some of the prisoners worked digging tunnels, others including Plt.

Off. Paton were called "stooges," charged with security, making sure the tunnels were not discovered. The guards looking for signs of escape were known as "ferrets."

"The stooges were beating the ferrets at their own game," Ted Barris wrote. The camp commandant suspected a breakout was coming but did not know how or when.

Then there were "penguins," whose job it was to disperse the dirt. Plt. Off. Paton was also a penguin, finding ingenious ways of dumping it.

"The biggest problem they had was getting rid of the dirt from the tunnels. They used to have these pants that had pockets, and they would release the earth. Which is why they started playing baseball and football as a way to get rid of the earth on the fields without the Germans really noticing," says his son John, who spent seven years putting together a book on his father's war experiences. "I spoke to people in Austria and Poland. One [German] historian, Uwe Benkel, did quite a bit of research on Dad.

He even found parts of the plane.

We still communicate back and forth."

On the night of March 24, 1944, men dressed in civilian disguises, with false identification papers made by a Canadian forger, started to leave through the narrow tunnel. They came out on the other side of the wire. Eighty of them made it out into the woods that surrounded the camp before the escape was discovered. Four were captured right away at the tunnel exit. All but three were captured, and 50 were murdered on direct orders from Adolf Hitler, their bodies cremated and buried outside the camp.

As the Soviet Red Army closed in on Germany, the prisoners were marched out of the camp in late January, 1945. On Feb. 4, 3,000 prisoners from Stalag Luft III arrived at another camp in Marlag in the west of Germany. British troops liberated Plt. Off. Paton and others just weeks before the end of the war.

"He had to go back to England for a medical checkup and debriefing before he could come home," his son said. By the time he arrived in England he had been promoted to Flight Lieutenant, the equivalent of Captain in the Army.

After the war, he returned to work at Canada Life, where he became the manager of mortgage services and was a star on the company baseball team. He married Marie Russell in 1948.

Flt. Lt. Paton continued to be a semi-professional pitcher and was hired by local teams. His son John remembers him planning the family vacation around his baseball games. The family would go to Orillia in time for an annual baseball tournament at Couchiching Park.

"Every morning at the cottage, he would practise pitching, and I would catch. Then he went to the tournament, dressed completely in black, and teams would come up and offer him money to play for them," John Paton said.

Flt. Lt. Paton retired when he was 63, and he and his wife spent winters in Florida, in a community called Maple Leaf Estates. Always a great athlete, he took up golf. When he was in his early 80s he "shot his age," that is, he recorded 80 strokes in an 18-hole game, considered quite an achievement. He scored five holes-in-one.

He was alert until the end of his life, though his wartime hip injury caused him to be in a wheelchair for the last few years.

Flt. Lt. Paton leaves his wife, Marie; their children, John, Gordon and Beverley; and six grandchildren.

Associated Graphic

Pilot Officer Bill Paton - back row, third from left - a Second World War veteran who took part in the Great Escape, was a member of the baseball team at the Nazi POW camp Stalag Luft III. Sports were played at the camp to distract guards from the prisoners' escape plans.

PHOTOS COURTESY OF THE FAMILY

Plt. Off. Paton, who spent 25 months in detention, was liberated by British troops along with other surviving prisoners shortly before the end of the war.


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Growing pains in the Fraser Valley
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Home buyers seeking affordability are driving a development boom in one of the fastest-growing suburbs in Canada, but some residents are concerned about the township's ability to handle the influx
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By FRANCES BULA
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Friday, November 8, 2019 – Page H5

VANCOUVER -- Thirty years ago, a big chunk of undeveloped land in Langley, B.C. would have meant one thing to Kent Sillars: hectares of single-family homes.

That's what people wanted when they moved to this oncerural Fraser Valley community, about an hour's drive east of Vancouver. And it was what his company, Vesta Properties, started by building.

This year, Mr. Sillars's company is finishing the construction of a very different kind of project on the 30 hectares of land it owns next to 200th Street in Langley's Willoughby neighbourhood.

There will be only 73 stand -alone houses among the 2,000 homes in the development, which is being renamed Latimer Heights. The other 1,927 units will be townhouses, duplexes, rowhouses and condos. There will also be some office space mixed in and a "main street" filled with, Mr. Sillars says, European-style shops that will complement what he calls a Parisian style of building.

"Single-family is no longer the staple of housing for the Fraser Valley," Vesta's president says.

"The townhouse is the new single-family."

But it's not just the form of housing that's different. It's the style of the neighbourhood, which Mr. Sillars repeatedly calls an urban village: a place where those living in the condos and townhouses can go to a butcher or a dentist within walking distance or hike along trails around the manufactured pond instead of having to get into a car for absolutely everything.

It's a style that is has been increasingly popular since the early 1980s, ever since a new wave of community planning, called the New Urbanism, favoured the idea of recreating small-town-style neighbourhoods in built-fromnothing subdivisions.

Cities such as Vancouver have created new developments, including Olympic Village, along those lines, and one decade-old project in central Surrey was officially labelled an urban village.

The region's two main universities have also tried to create a small-town, main-street feel in the massive developments they've allowed on their land.

Latimer Heights will be the biggest and most rurally located of anything in that genre in the Lower Mainland.

It's also part of a general trend in region that has seen builders move more and more to multifamily rather than single-family developments.

In the 15 years between the 2001 and 2016 censuses, there were only 800 new stand-alone houses added to the township of Langley, but almost 10,000 "ground-oriented" other types of housing and more than 2,000 apartments.

For younger people looking for affordable homes in an increasingly costly region, the new style is welcomed.

Tom and Kerrin Baxter, 29 and 30 respectively, will be moving this January from Kerrin's parents' basement in Walnut Grove to one of the corner, three-bedroom townhouses in the development at the relatively modest price (for the Lower Mainland) of $630,000 - half what a single-family house would cost there.

For Mr. Baxter, who grew up in a real, not manufactured, village in England's West Sussex, the concept of Latimer Heights was appealing. And it was the right price.

"We don't want to be house poor. We love to travel. This was just more sensible," said Mr. Baxter, a registered massage therapist and personal trainer working in the next-door suburb of Surrey.

But he also worries about the rapid pace of development, bringing traffic congestion and massive transformations of the landscape, that he sees all around him, even though he is inevitably part of it.

"Even in the eight years I've been here, there's been incredible change," he said.

That's something that many residents, both old and new, are worrying about in Langley.

The township, a large municipality that is separate from the smaller and historic city of Langley it surrounds, is one of the fastest-growing suburbs in Canada With a 12.6-per-cent increase between 2011 and 2016, when its population reached 117,000, it grew as quickly as Calgary, the country's fastest-growing large metro.

It expanded even more than suburban Surrey, often seen as the growth capital of southern B.C.

A decade ago, the big growth area in Langley was Walnut Grove, north of the Trans-Canada Highway that cuts through the township. Now it's Willoughby, south of the freeway, where only 40 per cent of the land planned for development has been built, including Latimer Heights, with another 60 per cent still to come.

And an area called Brookswood, a more typical single-family area even further south, is due for rezoning soon.

The construction boom is unlikely to abate, given that house prices in central Vancouver have only receded a little and that Langley is supposed to be getting a SkyTrain rapid-transit line at some point in the next decade, connecting it to the rest of the region in a way that the current bus system doesn't.

But that explosive growth has brought a lot of unhappiness, as the township grapples with a rapidly changing mix of people, adding many younger households to an existing mix of real farmers (75 per cent of the township's land is in B.C.'s famous Agricultural Land Reserve), horsey types and retirees wanting a rural spread, along with traditional families and kids in subdivisions.

The civic election last October saw several councillors elected with a decided not-so-fast attitude to development and a few who came close, such as Michelle Connerty.

"I go to every council meeting and see 753 trees coming down and none of them saved. [The Willoughby area] doesn't have sidewalks or complete roads and a brand-new school there already has 10 portables on it," said Ms.

Connerty, who has lived with her husband and three children in Brookswood for about eight years.

She says Latimer Heights is one of the better-planned developments - "people I talk to who really know real estate think it's a great idea" - but that doesn't make up for the fact that the township is drowning in its own growth.

One new councillor who swept in with the second-highest number of votes, Eric Woodward, campaigned specifically on trying to come up with a more coherent approach.

"We allow development on any property in Willoughby, with no co-ordination or phasing, no infrastructure." Both he and Ms.

Connerty say the township is not asking developers for enough in contributions to help pay for needed community services, including roads and parks. They also say development needs to be slowed down until schools are built.

A sign of how divisive the rapid pace of development has become is that several councillors and the mayor were criticized this week when it was made public that they accepted personal contributions from several prominent developers (including relatively small amounts from Vesta) who have had projects approved in the township the past four years.

One former mayor, Rick Green, said he believes everything the council voted on should be reversed and new votes held where council members recuse themselves if necessary.

But Mayor Jack Froese says the criticisms are ill-informed.

"I find it kind of preposterous that they think $1,000 influences my decision." (A legal opinion he said he had just received on Monday specified that a donation is a violation of the law if a council candidate makes a specific promise to a contributor for something in return.)

Mr. Froese said he is unabashedly pro-development, for a good reason.

People are moving to Langley in droves and they need housing as fast as it can be built.

He acknowledged that, when development goes at the pace it does in Langley, there are problems. The roads, schools and parks don't keep up at first.

But, he said, if the township financed those up front, that would be hard on local taxpayers.

So, the township waits for developers to provide their contributions as projects roll out.

Langley township ran into some trouble in the last recession, edging toward bankruptcy, when it financed a lot of the infrastructure for the then-developing area of Walnut Grove and had to carry it for much longer than anticipated because of the housing crash.

So the mayor continues to say the way development is proceeding in the township is happening the most fiscally prudent way, even if it means short-term discomfort.

"There's always the growing pains. But the developments like Vesta are important to house the people we know are coming. If you slow development down, all we do is increase the price of housing."

Associated Graphic

Latimer Heights will be a mix of townhouses, duplexes, rowhouses and condos, with only 73 stand-alone houses among the development.

Vesta Properties is building a 2,000-unit development in Langley, B.C., called Latimer Heights, a rendering of which is seen above.

IMAGES COURTESY OF VESTA PROPERTIES


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After 75 years, a French village liberated by Canadians still feels true patriot love
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A Canadian soldier's return to France decades after the war forged a fresh bond between his family and the community he helped free from Nazi occupation - a bond still honoured today
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By TU THANH HA
  
  

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Monday, November 11, 2019 – Page A8

L ike many in his generation who fought in the Second World War, Keith Crummer didn't share much with his family after he returned to Canada in May, 1945, having seen action as an infantry officer in France, Belgium and the Netherlands.

"My father never talked about it. Never, never, ever, ever talked about it," his eldest daughter, Diane Teetzel, recalled - although she once saw him in the basement watching the movie adaption of The Longest Day, the bestseller about the Normandy landing. "Tears were rolling down his face. I just shut the door and let him be."

Then, a trip 45 years ago to France brought Mr.

Crummer back to Criquebeuf-sur-Seine, a Norman village his regiment liberated in 1944. The Canadian soldiers had arrived just after the Germans nearly executed 63 local hostages.

When Mr. Crummer visited in 1974, he showed up unannounced. However, "word got around that my father was there and the mayor at the time came to him ... and they had a big celebration," Ms. Teetzel said.

Criquebeuf's mayor later sent a letter, thanking Mr. Crummer. "You and your brave soldiers have left an enduring memory and friendship in all our hearts," it said.

Ms. Teetzel said her father was "flabbergasted, absolutely flabbergasted" by the villagers' kindness.

r, Although Mr. Crummer has since died, his name still resonates in Criquebeuf decades later, and a deep friendship now bonds the locals and his family.

Tucked against a tributary of the Seine River, Criquebeuf is a small community off the beaten path in Normandy. Visitors who make the 90-minute drive from Paris enter through a street still lined by old stone houses, Rue des Canadiens.

Then, past the town square, named Hostages Place, sits a bridge that in August was renamed after Mr. Crummer.

Two weeks ago, friends from Criquebeuf visited Ms. Teetzel in Chatham, Ont. Her family greeted them at the train station with a French flag. It was a gesture mirroring the hospitality she received when she went to Criquebeuf this summer and witnessed the renaming of the bridge to honour her father's memory.

"We've become a big family. ... It's a beautiful friendship," said Marie-Josée Heitz, one of the three Criquebeuf residents visiting Ms. Teetzel.

Mr. Crummer was a 28-year-old employee at Chatham's Union Gas Ltd. when he enlisted as a private at the start of the war in 1939. He was commissioned as an officer and, by 1944, was a major with D company of the Lincoln and Welland regiment. They landed in France at the end of July, as Canadian and British soldiers still laboured to break out of the bridgeheads they established on D-Day, June 6. The regiment struggled in its first offensive operations. But within weeks, the bulk of the German military in Normandy had been surrounded and defeated in the battle of the Falaise Pocket and the Allies rushed toward the Seine and Paris.

"Am in a little French house close to the road where our army is tearing by at a great pace," Mr.

Crummer wrote in one letter to his wife, Frances.

"We have been going night and day as you will have heard by now. The enemy is on the run burning his bridges behind him. We are not missing his convoys, passed through one the other night which stretched for at least 15 miles, every vehicle was destroyed, words cannot express the destruction." On Aug. 24, the Lincoln and Welland moved within 30 kilometres of the Seine, though muddy grounds and blown-up bridges slowed their advance. In Criquebeuf, meanwhile, the villagers were in danger.

Germans retreating by the village believed a local resident had wounded one of their soldiers.

They rounded up 63 men into a church and prepared to execute them. It was no idle threat. In three occasions that summer, the Germans massacred hundreds of civilians in retaliation against the French Resistance. They hanged 99 men in the town of Tulle and deported another 149 to concentration camps. The following day, they killed 642 at Oradour-sur-Glane, then destroyed the village. The day after the Criquebeuf round-up, the Germans slaughtered 124 residents of the township of Maillé.

In Criquebeuf, Simonne Roman, who was then 13, remembered that the villagers came to ask her mother, Anne Fleck, to intercede. Ms. Fleck worked as a custodian for a wealthy Paris family that kept a summer mansion in the village. She spoke German because she was from Lorraine, a border area claimed by Germany. Ms. Roman said her mother arrived as the Germans were setting up machine guns and grenades to execute the hostages. For 45 minutes, Ms. Fleck pleaded with the officer in charge. She told him the villagers had never created problems before. "Maybe you have children," she said, reminding the officer that both he and the villagers had children waiting at home.

Eventually, the officer told his men to leave the hostages and move on because the Allies were approaching. Ms. Roman remembered her mother returning to the mansion. "She was so relieved but very stressed, the poor dear."

Two days later, according to the regimental diary, the first elements of the Lincoln and Welland entered the village. The Germans were still shelling the area. The Canadians fired back with their own artillery.

Taking an abandoned boat, soldiers under Mr.

Crummer's command used shovels as paddles to reach the other bank of the Seine. "My company was the first Canadian troops to cross the Seine and stayed over all night," the major later wrote home. They held on to their bridgehead on the far bank without reinforcement for 12 hours, despite shellfire and some street fighting when a convoy of enemy vehicles passed by around midnight, Canadian military records say.

In the following weeks and months, the Lincoln and Welland faced more bitter fighting, in the canals of Flanders and the ice and mud of the Dutch island of Kapelsche Veer, in the winter of 1945. Mr.

Crummer was wounded, then returned to Chatham to be a manager at Union Gas.

His wife had French relatives and friends. In 1974, they visited Georgette Testard, a Parisian cousin who had a holiday home in Elbeuf, eight kilometres from Criquebeuf. So Mr. Crummer decided to drop by the village.

Mr. Crummer died in 1990. In the summer of 2014, Ms. Teetzel saw there were many events in France marking the 70th anniversary of the Normandy campaign. She looked at the letter from Criquebeuf and wondered if the village had organized anything.

She found the town hall's phone number and tried to get through in her best French. They con-

nected her with Ms. Heitz's son-in-law, Damien Bellière, a municipal councillor who informed her that the village's celebration was scheduled to begin within days.

On short notice, Ms. Teetzel and one of her sisters, Joan Crummer-Rolland, flew to France, where they were greeted at Roissy airport by Mr. Bellière and his brother-in-law, grinning and holding up a large Canadian flag. "Joanie and I, we just knew this was going to be the most incredible four days of our lives."

But that was only a start, because five years later, in August, it was now 29 members of the Crummer family who were able to make it for Criquebeuf's 75th anniversary celebration.

They met Ms. Roman, daughter of Ms. Fleck, who had saved the hostages, and agreed that her mother was a hero who deserved a medal.

There were fireworks. Bells tolled. Re-enactors wore vintage uniforms. Large banners with Mr.

Crummer's photo and the Lincoln and Welland regimental badge adorned the town square.

In an interview, Ms. Heitz's daughter Bonny said it was important that Criquebeuf's children could put a face to their Canadian liberators, a concrete reminder why their village still existed rather than be like Oradour-sur-Glane - never rebuilt and now a haunting memorial of Nazi atrocities.

Mr. Crummer, she said, represents "my village's freedom. ... He was someone who crossed the Atlantic to risk his life for our country. They were men who enlisted to free a land that wasn't even theirs."

Associated Graphic

Below: Major Keith Crummer, at right, is seen during a military exercise in Canada before he was sent overseas.

Top: Criqueboef as it appears today. Above: What the village looked like in 1958.

ABOVE: PHYLIPPE DETOISIEN

Below: Criquebeuf has renamed a bridge after Keith Crummer. Here, a Canadian flag hangs beside the plaque erected in his honour.

DAMIEN BELLI

Criquebeufsur-Seine holds a celebration In August, 2019, to mark 75 years since it was liberated by Canadian troops.

DAMIEN BELLI


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The healing power of the war-vet play Soldier On
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By MARTIN MORROW
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page R1

I n the spring of 2011, Cassidy Little, a medic with Britain's Royal Marine Commandos, was on patrol in Afghanistan's Helmand province when a hidden explosive blew apart one of his legs and left him riddled with injuries.

"I lost my leg below the knee on the right side," Canadianborn Little says.

"I have a massive skin graft and some nerve damage up my left side and I'm missing another chunk on the upper part of my right leg. I had a double fracture to my pelvis, a mild brain injury and a semi-detached retina in my left eye. And as a result of all this trauma, I now have type 1 diabetes."

Bearded and relaxed, Little is totting up his wounds while cheerfully sipping beer during a Skype call from Zante, Greece. He jokes that his wife has forced him "at gunpoint" to take a family holiday before he begins his next tour of duty.

That tour is a theatrical one.

He's headed back to Toronto this month to perform in Soldier On, a new British play by and about war veterans that runs at the Baillie (formerly Berkeley Street) Theatre.

Toronto already knows Little from The Two Worlds of Charlie F., a previous British show involving vets that Mirvish Productions brought to the Princess of Wales Theatre in 2014. It was a remarkably candid and surprisingly lively mix of drama, black comedy and song and dance, in which Little played the lead role.

"It was pretty exciting," he recalls of that gig, but also a bit overwhelming. Although he'd done some acting in his native Newfoundland prior to joining the Royal Marines, Little had never fronted a major production before. "I was like a deer in the headlights," he admits. "This time, I'm coming back with a lot more experience." Thanks to Charlie F., his career has since taken off across the pond, with roles in feature films and TV series and a winning stint on Strictly Come Dancing, the original British version of Dancing with the Stars.

"He's a bit of a celebrity over there," says Thomas Craig, nursing his own preferred poison, a gin and tonic, at a favourite pub in Toronto's Beaches neighbourhood. "He just did Corrie [the venerable British soap Coronation Street] last year." The Yorkshireborn Craig, best known as crusty Inspector Brackenreid on CBC Television's long-running Murdoch Mysteries, co-stars with Little in Soldier On.

You could say Little is a "poster veteran" for successful reintegration into civilian life. His way back was through the theatre. He was still recuperating from his injuries at the British military's Headley Court rehabilitation centre in the English countryside when he was cast in Charlie F. Like that production, Soldier On is part of an effort not simply to spotlight talented vets, but to use theatre as a means of healing.

Soldier On, in fact, is a piece of meta-theatre about vets putting on a play about vets, revealing how the creative process helps them deal with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Jonathan Lewis, its playwright and director, says it was inspired by his experience creating a play with the military community in Plymouth, England.

Psychologists have found that creating narratives about trauma is a way to compartmentalize and manage it, Lewis notes. "It's not a cure, but it helps in the process of building self-awareness and letting go of the pain and damage," he says during a phone interview from London. "It helps you rebuild. But it also does the same thing for the audience - it provides a catharsis."

Not that the play is all heavygoing. Lewis adds that it's full of humour, music and dancing. "It's been called the military Full Monty," he says.

The show is produced by Amanda Faber, one of Charlie F.'s co-producers, and the non-profit Soldiers' Arts Academy. It premiered in early 2018 with a tour of Britain, followed by a five-week run last fall in London at Andrew Lloyd Webber's off-West End venue, The Other Palace. "We've been getting these incredible standing ovations wherever we do it," Lewis says. "It's been thrilling to be a part of it." A Canadian military vet, tech entrepreneur Roland Gossage, saw the play in London and decided to bankroll a Toronto remount.

"It addresses PTSD in a way I'd never seen before," he says. The 16-member cast is a mix of vets and professional actors.

The production playing the Baillie will feature members of the original British company - including Little and Craig - as well as some Canadian actors new to the show: Merle Newell, Janaya Stephens and singer-actor Scotty Newlands, who has an armed forces background as well.

Craig, who lives in London when not shooting Murdoch Mysteries, says the vets are essential to the ensemble - and not just ones such as Little who having acting experience. "Even the guys who've never been onstage before bring a quality to the play that you wouldn't get if it was just entirely professional actors," he says.

"You'd miss that reality that they bring to it. You know that they've lived what they're talking about."

Little portrays a vet named Woody, whose clownish behaviour hides a seething anger and resentment. "He did a lot for his country and he feels he didn't get anything in return," Little explains. He understands that anger himself. "Early days, when I still had tubes and metal bits sticking out of me, I was angry," he recalls.

"If you're expecting a long career in the military and that's shortened by a very large explosion, it's natural to feel that way, and maybe to feel a little sorry for yourself, too."

Today, he counts his blessings - a supportive family, a burgeoning career - and his incredible luck.

Three other men, two fellow Royal Marines and an Afghan interpreter, didn't survive the blast that took off his leg.

When Charlie F. played Toronto five years ago, Canada was just wrapping up its military involvement in Afghanistan and the after-effects of war were on the public mind. Lewis knows that's not the case now, either here or in Britain.

"When the body bags aren't coming back and it's not making headlines, people tend to forget about [a war]," he says. "But of course, the guys who fought in it are still suffering. Our rates of suicide in the military and among the ex-military are out of control."

In Canada, the story is the same.

Although there are no official statistics, an investigation by The Globe and Mail revealed that, as of 2016, at least 70 Canadian soldiers and vets had died by suicide after serving in Afghanistan. The Canadian military and federal government have since jointly launched a mental-health strategy to combat suicide risk.

Lewis, who attended Britain's Sandhurst officers' academy as a young man, says the traditional stiff-upper-lip culture of the military is part of the problem. "The prevailing attitude is to 'man up' and not complain. That's what we're trying to tackle with this play," he says. "And it's great that we've got people like Cassidy and other veterans involved, because it's giving a green light that it's okay to talk about this."

In Soldier On, the macho attitude is represented by Craig's character, an ex-sergeant major tasked with helping the director of the play-within-the-play. "I start out hating the whole idea of it, thinking it's a waste of time," says the burly actor, whose own military experience is limited to playing many soldiers on stage and screen. "By the end, I want to be in the play. It's quite a character arc!"

The Soldier On squad hope to take the show elsewhere after its Toronto debut. Lewis and Gossage have met with a representative of Arts in the Armed Forces, the charity set up by Hollywood actor Adam Driver, a former U.S.

Marine, with a view to a possible off-Broadway engagement.

Little adds that the play is relevant to more than just a military audience. PTSD can also be experienced by police, paramedics and other "first responders" and by anyone who has undergone significant and disturbing trauma. "Many people can relate to the stories that are being told here."

Soldier On runs Nov. 26 to Dec. 8 at the Marilyn and Charles Baillie (Berkeley Street) Theatre in Toronto.

(canadianstage.com)

Associated Graphic

Cassidy Little, left, and Thomas Craig star in Soldier On, a British play by and about war veterans.

PAUL RANDALL


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BIRTH AND Death Notices
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Monday, November 11, 2019 – Page B17

DEATHS PATRICIA ALYCE ARCHER May 22, 1922 - November 1, 2019 Patricia passed peacefully at Briton House, Toronto. Pat was the beloved wife of the late Frederick Archer and loving mother of George (Kristine Lee) and Jim (Marcia). She was the proud Gran to Nate, Taggart (Ash) and Tracy (Stephan) and greatgrandmother to Rory and Cameron. We express our thanks to the folks at Briton House and her three angels, Sylvia, Merna and Yvonne, for their wonderful care.

You will be missed.

A service will be held at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W.

Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville) at 1:00 p.m. on Saturday, November 16th.

Reception to follow. If desired, donations in Pat's memory may be made to Leaside United Church or the charity of your choice. Condolences may be forwarded through: http://www.humphreymiles.com.

DIANA DONALD (née Harrower) April 4, 1928 November 9, 2019 Beloved mother of 4 children, who just adored her - Rick, Rob, Nancy and Dynah, grandmother of 9, and great-grandmother of 5, with 2 more on their way.

A friend to so many and cousellor to others. She touched everyone she met.

An extraordinary woman who beat cancer twice, and got her Masters Degree in Physcology at 60. She continued working well into her 80's because she loved helping others. They all remain friends and fans to this day. As well she was an author of 2 childrens books. She was the "block mom" to all her childrens' friends throughout her life. Young or old they sought her out.

Mom, we'll all keep dreaming of the fairies..

Service will be held at: Belvedere Funeral Home, 22025 TransCanada Hwy, Senneville Québec.

11:30 a.m. - 1 p.m.

JOHN BARRY GILBERT MD, FRCP (C) Born November 15, 1934 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, died on November 7, 2019 in Dallas Texas at the age of 84.

Raised in Brockville, Ontario Dr. Gilbert received his postsecondary education at the Royal Military College of Canada and the University of Toronto, graduating from the latter with his MD in 1961. He took post-graduate training in internal medicine and anesthesia at the University of Toronto teaching hospitals and served as a general practitioner in the remote mining town of Manitouwadge, Ontario. In 1967, he held a research fellowship in Anesthesiology at the Tufts New England Medical Center, during which year he passed the examinations to become a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada. He was then appointed to the clinical staff of the Toronto Western Hospital and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto. He became a diplomate of the American Board of Anesthesiology in 1971. He came to the USA in 1977 to serve as Director of Anesthesia Services at Rush Memorial Hospital in Meridian MS. In 1982 he served on the faculty at Southwestern Medical School and the staff of Parkland Hospital in Dallas TX. He spent the remainder of his career on the staff of Baylor University Medical Center in the private practice of Anesthesiology.

Barry married the love of his life Susan Aileen Phin in 1960. He is survived by his wife Susan, children Diana (Tipton), Kathleen, Julie, John and Stephanie (Heeney), his sons-in-law John Tipton, Timothy Heeney, daughter-inlaw Amy Gilbert, grandchildren Sarah Tipton, Joshua and Benjamin Gilbert.

The service will be held at 3 p.m.

on Thursday, November 14th at the Church of Holy Communion, 17405 Muirfield Drive, Dallas 75287 with a reception to follow in the Parrish Hall.

In lieu of flowers, the family asks that you consider making a donation in Barry's name to the Church of the Holy Communion http://holycommuniondallas.org/, Alzheimer's Association https:// act.alz.org/, or Austin Street Center https://www.austinstreet.org/ BIRGITTE NIELSEN-WORRALL July 12, 1948 November 5, 2019 It is with great sadness the family announces the passing of Birgitte at the age of 71. Beloved wife of the late James Worrall. Loving sister of Hans. Dear step-mother of Anna Jane, Brian, Brenda and Ingrid. Birgitte graduated from the University of Toronto, Victoria College, 1970. She was inducted into the University of Toronto Sports Hall of Fame as a member of the 1968-69 Women's Volleyball Team. Birgitte was a professional freelance photographer and her work was featured in several publications. Funeral Service will be held at Saint Thomas's Anglican Church, 383 Huron Street, Toronto, on Wednesday, November 13, 2019 at 10:30 a.m.

A reception will follow in the parish hall. If desired, donations to a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

Online condolences available through http://www.turnerporter.ca Life Celebrations by GIUSEPPE PAONESSA Patriarch. Immigrant. Father, grandfather and great-grandfather.

Giuseppe was born in Calabria, Italy in 1927. He was a man of two worlds. He built a home and family in his native Italy, marrying his wife Maria in 1949.

Post-World War II, he was part of the generation of Italians that saw that the prospects for his future descendants laid abroad.

At great personal sacrifice, Giuseppe and Maria uprooted their family and moved to Ontario, Canada; a country where they did not understand the language and had no promises of work. They were the ultimate prospectors, lead by a notion that things may be better in this new country.

With perseverance and hard work, Giuseppe and Maria built a prosperous home for their family and together made a second life for themselves in Canada. Giuseppe died peacefully, at home, with family by his side, on Friday, November 8, 2019, at the age of 91. Beloved husband of Maria for 70 years. Loving father of Rosa.

Proud grandfather of Carlo, Maria and Joseph and great-grandfather to Sofia, Aida and Victor. Giuseppe will be missed. Friends may call at the Turner & Porter "Peel" Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy 10 N. of Q.E.W) on Monday, from 2-4 and 6-9 p.m. Funeral Mass will be held at St. Catharine of Siena Catholic Church, 2340 Hurontario St., Mississauga, on Tuesday, November 12, 2019, 9:30 a.m. Interment Glen Oaks Memorial Gardens. For those who wish, donations may be made to Canadian Cancer Society or Lung Association.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca ESTHER MARGARET STEKETEE (nee Scott) Passed away peacefully at her place of residence on Wednesday, November 6, 2019.

She leaves her stepson, Jim (Jo). Lovingly remembered by her step grandchildren Devin (Leanne), Garrett (Lisa) Sabrina (Johnny), Jackson, Jade, Justin and Vanessa. She is the great-grandmother of Tayler, Jaxon, Aiden, Jacob, Noah, Freya and Amelia. She was preceded by her beloved husband Richard, P. Eng and her stepdaughter Kathey loved and remembered by her daughter-in-law, Patricia Steketee, as well as Janice Kantor, Ann and Dave Parker, Sue and Jack Ward, Tennis Reynolds, her relatives and many friends.

Esther was a graduate of Victoria University and received her Master's Degree at the University of Niagara.

After graduation she was employed by the T. Eaton Company; worked in the executives offices add-on various merchandising areas.

As a result of this experience, Esther later owned and operated a boutique in Niagara on the Lake. In 1961 she entered the teaching profession and spent 13 years as an instructor and Director of Business Education Departments in a variety of locations surrounding the city of Toronto, the Niagara Peninsula, including secondment to the University of Toronto.

Esther was co-author and author of business textbooks, education consultant for a television program on business procedures, served on curriculum committees and conducted workshops on teaching methodology. As the result of Esther's contribution to business education, in 1979 she received the Robert Hillmer Award, an award given each year for an outstanding contribution to business education in the province of Ontario.

Esther was known for her sincere, caring personality, and throughout her career assisted physically and emotionally handicapped children and their pursuit of meaningful and independent lives.

Esther was a member of the Boulevard Club, Burlington and Thornhill Golf and Country. Although time and opportunities were limited, Esther's leisure time included piloting an airplane and skydiving.

Private cremations and burial have taken place.

Donations to a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

BETTY FRANCES PRESCOTT October 23, 1937 to November 10, 2018 Beautiful Betty, You deeply touched all of us with your kindness, compassion and love. We are honoured to have had you in our lives. Greatly missed by: Michael Prescott (husband), Nancy and Jonathan (children), Nancy Nyman (sister), Sally Jordan (best friend) and her many friends across Canada, in Victoria, Nelson, Winnipeg, Toronto, Windsor, Ottawa, Montreal and Nova Scotia. Forever in our hearts, Your Loving Family.


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The tale of TFC's revolving door of 'keepers
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The loss of starter Frei in 2012 and 2013 kicked off a domino effect on Toronto goalies that's continued into 2019
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By NEIL DAVIDSON
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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page S10

SEATTLE -- W ith Quentin Westberg expected to start in Sunday's MLS Cup final, Toronto FC will have used three different goalkeepers in its three trips to the championship game over the past four seasons.

Seattle's Stefan Frei knows all about Toronto's revolving door in goal. He was part of it during his five-year stint north of the border.

Frei will make his third start in four seasons in the championship game, all against Toronto. Clint Irwin, Alex Bono and Westberg will have shared TFC's championship game starting duties over that series.

Toronto drafted the Swiss-born Frei 13th over all in the 2009 MLS SuperDraft, its third first-round selection after midfielder Sam Cronin (second) and Canadian forward O'Brian White (fourth).

After three years as Toronto's starter, Frei lost his job to injury in 2012 and the fine play of Joe Bendik in 2013. That essentially set off a domino effect on TFC goalkeepers that has continued into the 2019 season.

In December, 2013, with Frei's US$200,00 contract expiring, Toronto dealt its onetime vice-captain to Seattle for a conditional draft pick while rewarding Bendik with a new deal.

Frei, who played under seven managers at TFC, was Toronto's all-time leader in appearances across all competitions (99) at the time. Frei has gone on to play more than 30 regular-season games in each of his six seasons with Seattle - 191 matches in total.

Here is a look at the TFC revolving door for 'keepers since Frei's arrival.

2009-11 Frei was the undisputed No. 1, playing 26, 28 and 27 regular-season games respectively. But a deep bruise to the bone by Frei's knee in 2011 opened the door to backup Milos Kocic (who played eight games that season).

2012 One game into the season, Frei broke his left fibula near the knee in a freak training accident - catching his leg in the grass while going after a ball during a wet training game at BMO Field.

Because of the break, a ligament near his ankle was put under stress and ruptured. That, in turn, put pressure on the tibia, which separated slightly from the fibula near the ankle. Frei had surgery to repair the ligament and insert two screws to tighten the two bones.

Frei had started the opening leg of the CONCACAF Champions League quarter-final against the Los Angeles Galaxy but Kocic had played both games since.

Kocic, whose season was complicated by the arrival of triplets late in the season, played 27 regular-season games in 2012. Toronto brought in Bermuda international Freddy Hall on trial with only 17-year-old Quillan as a backup.

Kocic was traded to Portland after the 2012 season, along with forward Ryan Johnson, in exchange for Bendik and the third overall pick in the 2013 SuperDraft (which turned out to be Kyle Bekker) and allocation money.

Toronto had yielded a franchise-worst 62 goals in compiling a league-worst 5-21-8.

2013 A healthy Frei looked forward a new start.

"And it is finally here ... I have been waiting for 2013 since last March. It's going to be a good year," he tweeted But injury struck again. In February during TFC's first preseason game in Florida, Frei got clipped by the boot of Columbus rookie striker Ryan Finley as he dove for a ball.

"Besides a very bent nose at the moment, we don't know," manager Ryan Nelson said of the initial diagnosis.

Frei had surgery in Orlando two days later, returning to practice wearing a protective mask to shield his surgically repaired nose. Bendik took advantage of his opportunity to play.

"Nobody's guaranteed a spot here and everybody understands that," Nelsen said.

Bendik played 33 regular-season games in the 2013 season. Frei played one.

In September, Toronto acquired Chris Konopka from Philadelphia in advance of the league roster freeze in September, all but signalling the end for the more expensive Frei. Bendik and Konopka were both on US$46,500 that season.

Asked if it was fair how he lost his job, Frei replied: "That's a question you're going to have to ask the head coach. He was the one that made that decision.

"I tried to stay professional, tried to work my butt off in training. That was pretty much all I could do. And that's all I'm going to say to that."

As Nelsen liked to say, possession is nine-tenths of the law.

2014 Nelsen threw a curve ball in February by signing 34-year-old Brazilian international Julio Cesar.

The Cesar loan was a marriage of convenience. He had fallen down the depth chart at Queens Park Rangers and needed games to stay on track to start for Brazil and the World Cup. For Nelsen, it was a chance to get a seasoned world-class goalie at a reduced price.

The veteran Brazilian had won five Italian titles, seven Italian cups, the Champions League and the FIFA Club World Cup. He was named Serie A Goalkeeper of the Year twice and nominated for the Ballon d'Or award in 2009.

Bendik took a backseat to the popular Cesar before returning to his No. 1 role in July when the Brazilian left with a unspectacular 34-0 record and two shutouts.

2015 What comes round goes round.

Konopka took over as No. 1 after filling in for Bendik while he was sidelined by a foot injury early in the season. Konopka ended up playing 21 games to Bendik's 13. At the end of the season, Toronto declined Konopka's option and sent Bendik to Orlando City for a conditional draft pick.

"Thank you Toronto for an awesome 3 years!" Bendik tweeted. "It has been consistently entertaining to say the least!"

Toronto had looked to the future by taking Syracuse's Bono sixth overall in 2015 SuperDraft.

2016 In January, Toronto acquired Irwin in a trade from Colorado to further shore up a defence that had given up a league-high 58 goals the previous season.

Irwin, an MLS all-star the previous year, was the fourth significant acquisition for Toronto this off-season after the arrival of centre back Drew Moor from Colorado, right back Steven Beitashour from Vancouver and Canadian midfielder Will Johnson from Portland.

TFC gave up a 2016 third-round draft pick, a conditional 2017 firstrounder and targeted allocation money to get Irwin, who had 25 shutouts in 92 appearances in all competitions for Colorado over the last three seasons.

Irwin made US$97,000 the season before, a cap-friendly amount for a starting 'keeper. But his starting role was interrupted by a quadriceps strain in late June.

In all, Irwin started 19 regularseason games while Bono started 15. Irwin returned for six playoff matches, including the MLS Cup playoff loss in a penalty shootout.

2017 Toronto rewarded Irwin with a new contract in February, giving him a two-year deal with an option. But Bono grabbed the starting job and hung onto it after Irwin went down with a hamstring strain in March sustained after his left foot jammed in the wet BMO Field turf as he came out to make a save. Bono played 29 regularseason games while Irwin saw action in five. Bono was in goal for five playoff games including the MLS Cup win.

2018 Bono, the undisputed No. 1, started 27 games with Irwin accounting for the remaining in seven. In November, Toronto declined Irwin's contract option before trading him back to Colorado the next month for a second-round draft pick. With a salary of US$221,300, he was expendable.

2019 Bono started the season as No. 1 with Toronto bringing in Westberg, a veteran French-born American. Bono started the first four games before Westberg was handed his first start in Seattle in April. The two split the next two games then Westberg took over, playing the next 25 matches.

Westberg, listed at 6 foot 1, has proved to be Mr. Reliable and is seen as one of the best distributors of the ball in the league.

"As for their goalkeepers, they've gone through a few throughout the years. I think they're always had good pieces. I don't know why they're moving on from them," Frei said of Toronto.

Associated Graphic

TFC players share a lighthearted moment during a training session in Tukwila, Wash., on Friday. The team faces the Sounders in the MLS Cup final in Seattle on Sunday.

TED S. WARREN/AP


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Goodbye to cold, lifeless office towers
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Amazon's new location in Vancouver helps redefine how office space is designed across Canada
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By FRANCES BULA
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Tuesday, November 12, 2019 – Page B6

The traditional office tower lobby, faithfully replicated by Hollywood movies and 20th-century corporations everywhere, brings to mind vast open spaces filled with granite or marble, banks of elevators and an imposing desk where a security guard sits, monitoring various cameras. While common, this dated style of lobby could easily be described as "empty" or "lifeless." And it's why Oxford Properties Group, in conjunction with its key tenant, Amazon, opted to do something completely different at its 402 Dunsmuir St. property in Vancouver.

As part of the Oxford Properties Group portfolio, a major player in the commercial office towers, the new office complex for Amazon is located at the edge of Vancouver's expanding business district and is scheduled for completion sometime next year.

Rather than replicate the lifeless office-tower lobby, Amazon and Oxford Properties Group opted to create more of a café feel.

To help create a space where people gather, the lobby includes an actual café, complete with baristas, amid what Patrick Fejér - senior design principal with B+H Architects, the Toronto-based firm that designed the ninestorey building now under construction - describes as an "agora-style staircase." Designed like a Greek theatre, the staircase descends into the lobby in a way that encourages people to gather - whether it's to sit, have lunch, do a bit of work or hold a short meeting.

This meeting space will connect seamlessly with the bikeparking lockers, as well as the elevators.

Another design feature was to leave the concrete elevator cores exposed and highlight this architectural structure with strategic touches of blackened metal.

"We call it the un-lobby," Mr.Fejér says. "It will be this new communal hub to the building."

TREND TOWARD REDESIGNING THE COLD, LIFELESS OFFICE-TOWER LOBBY Design innovations like the ones being incorporated into this lobby are trending with more frequency throughout Canada's downtown business districts - the product of an extended office-building boom combined with employers desperate to attract and retain the millennial and Gen X talent that their business success increasingly relies on.

Big companies such as Oxford, GWL Realty Advisors Inc. and others in Vancouver are leading the way, incorporating such perks as spa-like bike rooms - individual, wood-paneled bike lockers, complete with showers and clothes-drying facilities - sitstand desks that can be raised and lowered according to an employee's needs, operable windows that can be opened and closed (to help prevent the claustrophobic effects of breathing endlessly recycled air), upscale fitness rooms, green-filled courtyards, and outdoor gardens on multiple floors.

It's not just tech firms that are embracing this new style either, says Robert Kavanagh, vice-president of asset management for GWL.

"The tech companies are the ones growing, so they need more space, but law, mining, financial services are doing it to change their image," Mr. Kavanagh says.

Vancouver Centre 2, a tower being constructed by GWL near the major downtown intersection of Georgia Street and Granville Street in downtown Vancouver, has already secured its first three tenants, one each from the fields of tech, mining and financial services. In addition to the spiffed-up lobby, intentionally outdoors-y spaces, bike lockers, change areas and e-bike charging stations, the seventhfloor patio of the new building will be a designated dog-friendly space - evidently another nonnegotiable amenity for attracting employees.

"The office as a typology is being challenged by new modes of working," Mr. Fejér says. "Office designers are increasingly borrowing ideas from the hospitality industry to make workplaces more appealing. The UX, or user experience, is key."

WHY VANCOUVER IS LEADING THE OFFICE-BOOM The new approach is particularly dominant in Vancouver, the city that has seen the most dramatic increase in office space throughout the unprecedented, Canadawide office-building boom of 2014 to 2018. During that time, Vancouver's downtown core saw its normal pace of growth increase by an average of 400 per cent, outdoing the other gateway cities of Toronto and Montreal, as the region transitioned away from resource company head offices in favour of tech entities, says Stuart Barron, the national director of research with Cushman & Wakefield, a global commercial real estate services company.

Today, office buildings are still going up at a blistering pace - 4.3 million-square-feet currently in Vancouver, 10.5 million in Toronto and 2.1 million in Montreal (with vacancy rates, respectively, of 1.3 per cent, 2 per cent and 6.4 per cent).

This unprecedented growth has come as retiring baby boomers are being rapidly replaced by younger generations coming in.

The fact that members of this upand-coming cohort tend to work, play, socialize and commute to the office much differently than their predecessors is something that employers in these biggest growth sectors are sitting up and paying attention to as they compete for staff.

A survey recently conducted on behalf of GWL, among almost 600 office workers in its buildings, revealed that a mere 8 per cent of Vancouver's under-35 population favoured personal cars for getting to work, and that almost 60 per cent of under-45s relied on public transit. Respondents also expressed a desire for more places to hang out at work, such as courtyards and spaces for yoga classes.

PRACTICAL REASONS FOR CHANGING THE OFFICE-SPACE CULTURE Employers are taking these kinds of preferences into account for very pragmatic reasons, as society as a whole becomes increasingly aware of the different ways that younger employees behave.

"The better the workplace experience, the lower your turnover rate," says Wendy Waters, GWL's vice-president for research services and strategy.

"Millennials want two to three places to work," says Maury Dubuque, senior managing director at Colliers International in Vancouver.

That preference might relate to the continuing dominance of the open-office concept that, even though it is frequently derided, does not seem to be going away, and from which this emerging style seems to provide some escape.

Looking around at his own company's employees, Mr. Dubuque says, "Our young people need quiet space for mindful, thoughtful explorations."

One company that emerged as a trailblazer for this new kind of office experience was WeWork.

Founded in 2010, the American startup was one of the first of the new breed of lucrative new business models: firms that lease out space in downtown buildings, redesigning it to be hip, and then renting it out to space-hungry tenants - from individuals to small companies - in need of flexible office space on a shortterm basis.

Despite recent troubles - WeWork's scheduled IPO hit a roadblock this year when the firm's valuations dropped from US$47billion to US$8-billion, according to Bloomberg, and the firm's CEO was removed from his leadership role - WeWork's unique approach to setting up and marketing its office space demonstrated that "people actually want a nicer experience and they will pay for it," Ms. Waters says. "This is the shift to the experience economy."

In many cases, WeWork's presence in an office building has turned out to be a bonus for cotenants that may need to temporarily expand their operations to accommodate, for example, a big project or sudden surge of new business that is not guaranteed to continue.

NEW OFFICE-AMENITY TREND ISN'T RESTRICTED TO DOWNTOWN CORES This trend towards upscale, hotel-like amenities hasn't been limited to just the downtown cores in Canada's three biggest cities, either. Brokers and industry analysts say it is also happening in suburban districts or high-vacancy cities where competition for tenants runs high. Having a nicer package of amenities to offer employees is a selling point in a tough market.

"In Calgary, everyone's putting in fitness centres because there's a 25-per-cent vacancy rate," Ms.

Waters says.

But is everyone really going this way? Not necessarily, Mr. Kavanagh says. "There's still plenty of traditional office tenants in Vancouver [and in Canada] who just want the elevators and the heating to work."

Associated Graphic

The new office complex for Amazon, top, is located at the edge of Vancouver's expanding business district and is to be completed some time next year. In designing new office spaces, employers are catering to younger generations. 'Our young people need quiet space for mindful, thoughtful explorations,' says Maury Dubuque, senior managing director at Colliers International in Vancouver. TOP: B+H ARCHITECTS; ABOVE: GWL REALTY INC.


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Raptor Siakam adjusts to life in the spotlight
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Expectations are high for the power forward as friends and foes take notice of his reach and agility
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Saturday, November 2, 2019 – Page S12

TORONTO -- Pascal Siakam is off to a scorching-hot offensive start this season. But don't expect Raptors coach Nick Nurse to lighten his defensive responsibilities to help save his energy for scoring.

The Raptors' fast-rising young star from Cameroon will get one of the most challenging defensive assignments in the NBA on Saturday night, when Toronto is in Milwaukee to face the Bucks in a rematch of last season's Eastern Conference final. He will be asked to slow Greek superstar Giannis Antetokoumpo. Nurse said Siakam is young and energetic enough to excel at both ends of the floor, and there's no need to limit him.

"I think he can play defence, and he can score 25 to 30 a night," Nurse said of Siakam.

The team's expectations are clearly sky high for the Raps' power forward, to whom they awarded a four-year, US$130-million max-contract extension the day before the season began.

His gaudy offensive numbers are hogging the spotlight at the moment. Through five games, Siakam is averaging 28.0 points, sixth among all scorers in the NBA. He's adding 9.2 rebounds and 3.8 assists in 33.6 minutes, shooting 51 per cent from the field, and 44 per cent from threepoint range.

His 30 points in Wednesday's win over the Detroit Pistons included a remarkable 19-point third quarter.

His opening-night stat line of 34 points, 18 rebounds and five assists against the New Orleans Pelicans was so robust across three categories that only three other players in 35 NBA seasons have matched it in a season opener. Those were Charles Barkley, Karl Malone and Anthony Davis.

Siakam's opening-night performance caused Portland Trailblazers star CJ McCollum to tweet "Pascal Siakam is a problem."

The 6-foot-9 25-year-old has been leaving that impression with many around the NBA, since playing a key role in the Raptors' championship run and hoisting the league's most-improved-player award.

"I think he's shooting the ball a lot better this year," said Jonathan Isaac of the Orlando Magic, who defended him earlier this week.

"He's versatile, and he can use his speed and his quickness, and he has great body control. So I just try my best to stay in front and live with some of the stuff he does."

Now in his fourth season with the Raps, Siakam has become the premier focus of opposing teams' scouting reports. He used to be a player who could dazzle in oneon-one situations. Now, he must prepare to face double teams.

"Now I have to think about other people or make quick moves, split the defence, different ways. Something that's new, but I'm always willing to learn and evolve and it's just something about that, that's fun for me and makes it exciting," said Siakam, noting that the double teams he has seen this season haven't been too complex.

"I'm expecting Milwaukee to do something a little crazy because they always have - their defence and how they guard - so it'll be exciting to see what happens."

It's been a big leap for Siakam, who averaged 16.9 points last season. He worked to add muscle and strength over the summer.

He also added new scoring dimensions to his game, many at the advice of Nurse and Raptors assistant Jim Sann.

As he has in each off-season during his pro career, Siakam also spent time working with Rico Hines, a popular development coach who runs summer sessions for NBA players at UCLA.

Evidence of that work is showing up. Siakam is handling the ball sometimes in the pick and roll. He's shooting threes from beyond the break - not just predominantly from the corners as he did in the past. He is tinkering with a turnaround jumper - something to score over smaller players so he doesn't have to spend so many possessions bullying opposing players.

"I'm trying, just trying to find ways to score," Siakam said. "Using my length and things that I was gifted with."

Caron Butler, who played 16 seasons in the NBA and is now a Turner Sports analyst, says Siakam really impressed him during a quick, casual conversation they shared at Las Vegas summer league shortly after the Raps won the title.

"I was like, 'What's you're mindset right now?' and he was like, 'Man, getting better, getting better, always getting better,' " Butler said in an interview.

"That's not the thing that you typically hear from reigning NBA champions right after they won in the summer. You usually hear, 'I'm loving life right now, I'm partying'. He was already zoned in, getting better, like he really understood the importance of keeping that momentum going.

This is just the first layer of the talent he's going to show us in the next few years."

Siakam's finishing moves are keeping defenders guessing.

Then there is the eye-popping improvisational ability, too. Siakam had the Scotiabank Arena crowd gasping when he salvaged a too-long pass from Fred VanVleet on Wednesday, tapped it to himself, and then took it to the hoop.

He will need to stay out of foul trouble and control his turnovers. Always choosing the right play is a process, too.

"His usage can be as high as we want it to be. But he's got to improve on making the correct plays," Nurse said.

"Once you get two bodies on you, you've done your job. Your job isn't necessarily to score anymore. It's to find the right next play, and that should open things up for other people."

At the other end of the floor, Siakam will be the primary defender on Antetokounmpo on Saturday, but Nurse said OG Anunoby, Serge Ibaka and others will pitch in, too.

Facing the Bucks for the first time since the Raps beat them in the conference final brings back memories for Siakam of their bounce-back Game 3 victory after the Raps had fallen 0-2 in the series. Siakam had missed some pivotal late-game free throws that night, which led to the game going to overtime. Toronto's eventual dramatic OT win that night was a signature moment in the Raps run to the NBA Finals.

"I remember Kawhi blamed me for having to play an extra hour of basketball," Siakam recalled. "You know, after I missed those free throws, I could have just went back and not wanted to play anymore, just feeling I'd lost. But my teammates around me kept me motivated. It was definitely a great win."

So did he have big, athletic NBA stars such as Antetokounmpo on his mind as he worked to add weight and improve his skill over the summer?

"I don't know if that's what I was thinking when I was working out, but I was trying to get better overall," Siakam said.

"I'm still skinny but I think I'm a little stronger than I was last year." CANADIAN MEN'S 3X3 BASKETBALL TEAM TO PLAY IN QUALIFIER FOR TOKYO GAMES UTSUNOMIYA , JAPAN Canada has been awarded a spot in men's competition at the 2020 3x3 basketball Olympic qualifying tournament.

The final 10 berths in the men's and women's events were announced Friday.

The qualifying tournament allows maximum of 10 teams per continent and a minimum of 30 different countries represented over the two events.

Only the top six teams that qualified based on ranking could have a team in both events.

The last 10 berths in each gender were allocated by world ranking if a country didn't already have a team qualified in either gender.

Canada's men, ranked 18th, advanced as a result of having a higher rank than the women (26th).

The 20-team men's tournament will take place in March and will qualify three countries for the 2020 Tokyo Games.

Canada is in a group with the Netherlands, Latvia, Croatia and host India.

Toronto Raptor Pascal Siakam had a remarkable third quarter against the Detroit Pistons on Wednesday, racking up 19 points. 'I'm trying, just trying to find ways to score,' the power forward says. 'Using my length and things that I was gifted with.'

FRANK GUNN/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Tuesday, November 05, 2019
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ALBERTA MUST NOT RETURN TO 1980
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History does not simply repeat itself. If it did, my own uneasiness about how this will turn out might be assuaged
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Saturday, November 2, 2019 – Page O4

Professor of political science at the University of Alberta P olitical memory might be an oxymoron - the equivalent of a deafening silence, a civil war or old news; it is surely a malleable commodity, stretched to serve radically different purposes in a fight; and it might also be true, as a 19th-century European famously observed, that when history seems to repeat, it's tragedy the first time, farce the second.

Whatever the case, the spectre of Western separatism has come back noisily to Canadian political life in the aftermath of an election that, as in 1980, returned a Trudeau to the Prime Minister's Office without a Liberal MP between Winnipeg and Vancouver.

Prairie politicians have raised the possibility of separatism as early leverage against a minority government in Ottawa, careful to add that they are not advocating it, just understanding the frustration that gives rise to it. Pundits continue to speculate about whether the anger is greater this time, and therefore whether the prospect of separation should be taken more seriously.

I remember 1980. I want to set the bar high for any comparisons.

I especially remember the raucous night that November when the dignified Jubilee Auditorium in Edmonton was jam-packed for a rally featuring Doug Christie, the self-appointed leader of the separatist Western Canada Concept (WCC).

I was there as a newspaper journalist.

I remember watching as capwearing young men shouted obscenities and spat in the direction of the Edmonton city councillor who had dared to stand vigil at the doors, holding a Canadian flag.

I remember the three-syllable, Trump-style chant - "free the West, free the West" - that rocked the building whenever the crowd was roused, as it was again and again. Later that night, I could scarcely steady my fingers to punch a story into the clunky teletype machine at the legislature media gallery. This, I wrote, had been no symphony crowd.

Even now, I cannot recall that night without an involuntary tingle in my spine.

My editors, wary of their readers, decided the next morning that my straightforward account of events, right down to the man in the back who shouted "Sieg Heil" with full Nazi salute, could not run on the front page without a warning label that it was commentary rather than news. Those were sensitive and dramatic times.

In 1980, Premier Peter Lougheed had responded to the National Energy Program with a televised address in which he warned Ottawa to get off the front porch, to keep its hands off the resources that were rightfully a matter of provincial jurisdiction. His government partly shut off the taps.

The few opposition politicians in the legislature worried that in his attempt to harness popular anger, he had started to sound too much like a separatist himself.

One of them, voice quavering, propped on his desk the official portrait of Frederick Haultain, the last premier of the Northwest Territories before Alberta and Saskatchewan were carved out of it in 1905, to encourage Mr. Lougheed to be a statesman of similar stature. But when Mr. Lougheed negotiated an agreement on energy pricing and taxation with the Trudeau government, the resulting oil patch backlash against his "betrayal" gave a short political life to the WCC, which elected its only MLA in a by-election in central Alberta in 1982.

Those were the days when itinerant constitutional messiahs drew earnest crowds to smalltown halls to disclose the truth, duly recorded in my notebooks, that Canada had never been legally constituted and therefore could be remade, or not, according to the people's demands.

When I wrote a three-part series on Western separation, I got an official letter from the prime minister's principal secretary, Tom Axworthy. The letter masked its warning - don't give these guys any oxygen! - with faint words of appreciation, which mattered to a young journalist partly for the realization that I'd made the clipping service in Ottawa.

That's how I remember the politics of 1980. I'm not eager to relive anything like it.

So what's changed in 2019?

Better to start with what hasn't.

First, Alberta then and now is an anxious place. The price of the province's reliance on hydrocarbon wealth is the constant insecurity that it will be stolen away - by a government in Ottawa, by foreign-funded "eco-terrorists" or even by a fundamental shift in energy technologies.

The insecurity is tied to real livelihoods, expectations and communities, and to the very real fiscal limits of a provincial government committed to restoring Alberta's status as a low-tax regime underwritten by rollercoaster resource revenues.

Second, the separatist cause still creates all kinds of room for self-appointed champions and political entrepreneurs. It obscures their other ideological commitments.

Third, the advocates of independence remain concentrated in Alberta, mostly in the south, perhaps with more enthusiastic support now out of Saskatchewan. But they still presume that the rest of the West will simply follow their lead. More critically, and inexcusably, in 2019, they presume that independence can happen as if treaty relations with Indigenous peoples are legally and politically inconsequential - as if Indigenous peoples can simply be moved like furniture into whatever new political entity is imagined on their traditional territories.

History, of course, does not simply repeat itself. If it did, my own uneasiness about the future might be assuaged.

So what's changed?

For one thing, the fight in 1980 was about policy jurisdiction and the distribution of non-renewable resource wealth - not about whether the energy economy represented an unconscionable threat to the future of the planet.

The stakes were not so existential. Both provincial and federal governments were direct investors in energy production. They were untroubled by the global politics of climate change or the continental politics of building pipelines to reach markets. They counted on the return of boomtimes. A deal could be done.

For another, the anger and fear of 2019 have been informed and amplified exponentially by social media. In 1980, when most people still read the daily paper, my front-page story might have provoked a couple of letters to the editor, but not a torrent of threatening tweets.

Moreover, Western separatism in the last round was largely home-grown, informed by historic regional grievances. In 2019, it borrows freely from the symbols and language of a global populist surge: "Wexit," MAGA caps, yellow vests. Aware or not of the darker tendencies of that populism, it risks becoming the kindling for a bigger, more dangerous fire.

Finally, Canada's politicians have yet to show that they are up to the current challenges of leadership. If anything, in this age of permanent elections and fundraising, the rewards of high office go to the campaigners, not the conciliators or the brave thinkers.

In Alberta, in particular, as the new economic realities persist, pipeline or not, politicians will have every incentive to deflect responsibility to external enemies - and also internal ones - rather than lead an honest conversation that engages what is a diverse, complex province. Someone will have to be to blame. Or, from an Ottawa vantage-point, some provinces might still need to be written off to preserve a progressive minority government.

All of this suggests that Albertans, Westerners, indeed all Canadians will be tested severely in the months ahead, whether through the polarized politics of pipeline construction, or the shadow-boxing of an equalization referendum, or some other crisis that is still to appear on the political horizon. The common life is at risk, and not just in the gap between Ottawa and Calgary. Within Alberta, we will be reminded regularly how divided we actually are.

For my part, I'm grateful not to be that young journalist who draws the assignment of covering the Jason Kenney government's "expert panel," which was established last week to hear out the frustrations of Albertans and turn their preferred futures into recommendations for action. No doubt that journalist will be more precariously employed than I was. The experience won't be a high-minded one.

But I hope she takes good notes, writes what she sees and hears and draws cautionary lessons from the assignment in better times, four decades from now.

Bumper stickers are sold at a convention for the Western Canada Concept party in Red Deer, Alta., in July, 1982.

DAVE BUSTON/THE CANADIAN PRESS

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Responsible getaways
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From Aruba to the Arctic, these destinations are making environmental practices part of their appeal
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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page P8

1. THE IDYLLIC ISLAND ESCAPE Aruba's Bucuti & Tara Beach Resort sits on 14 acres of beautiful white sand beach. The 104-room resort is stunning and it's also a pioneer in sustainable tourism.

Named the world's most sustainable hotel by Green Globe, a Los Angeles-based sustainability certification agency, Bucuti & Tara became the Caribbean's first carbon-neutral resort last year.

Thanks to the largest solar panel installation the government of Aruba will allow, plus smaller measures, such as energy-efficient appliances and purchasing carbon offsets from a local wind farm, the resort has been able to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to net zero.

"Global warming, climate change is a major threat to the islands,"owner and CEO Ewald Biemans says. "Everybody needs to make an effort, especially those of us who are in the travel business."

Guests are provided with a reusable water canteen upon check-in, a program launched six years ago that has kept nearly 300,000 single-use plastic water bottles from Aruba's landfills each year (the country currently does not recycle plastic). To further reduce the use of plastics, rooms feature dispensers for shampoo, conditioner and lotion instead of individual containers.

Sustainability initiatives such as these make good business sense - tourism accounts for the majority of Aruba's economy - and appeal to guests, Biemans says.

The resort also organizes monthly beach cleanups, which guests are invited to participate in. Many guests choose instead to lounge by the pool or swim in the Caribbean Sea, but some guests always volunteer, and Biemans is happy to reward them. "In return they get a bottle of Champagne for contributing to the environmental conservation of the island," Biemans says.

For more information, visit bucuti.com.

- DAVE MCGINN

2. SETTING SAIL Cruising has never been more popular - 30 million people around the world are expected to go on cruises this year, up from 17.8 million in 2009.

But with demand surging, the cruising industry has come under fire for its environmental impact.

"All travel companies are part of the problem with climate change, and we've got to be part of the solution," says Leigh Barnes, the chief purpose officer at Intrepid Group, a Melbourne, Australiabased company that operates several brands, including Peregrine Adventures,whichoperates 10 charter itineraries across Asia and Europe.

Their nine-day sustainable cruise to Thailand, for example, takes passengers to small islands off the country's west coast, including Ko Phayam,SurinTaiand KhoaLak,where you can swim in the Andaman Sea and then dine with locals in villages.

To promote sustainable cruising, Peregrine uses smaller boats that each accommodate a maximum of 50 passengers, generating less waste than larger boats.

The company has been carbon neutral since 2010 thanks to carbon offset projects including fighting deforestation in Kenya and purchasing carbon credits from a wind farm in Turkey. Last year, Peregrine banned all single use plastics from its cruises, which means no plastic water bottles ors traws.Instead,passengers are provided with refillable water bottles. To further reduce the carbon footprint of the company's cruises, Peregrine sources 90 per cent of each trip's food locally.

Through the Intrepid Foundation, a not-for-profit entity set up in 2002,the Intrepid Groupis also raising money for aseaweed farm off the coast of Tasmania. By matching donations dollar for dollar, the foundation has so far raised more than $400,000 for the project. "Seaweed is the fastest growing plant in the world and it's really good at sequestering, drawing carbon out of the atmosphere," Barnes says.

For more information, visit peregrine adventures.com.

- D.M.

3. A NURTURING RETREAT TO NATURE There are few things more quintessentially Canadian than paddling in local waters, and family owned Owl Rafting teaches guests the intricacies of whitewater rafting, the finesse of canoeing and the importance - both historical and modern-day- of this country's waterways.

The company has two locations:one in Ottawa,which offers day trips and overnight excursions down the 12-kilometre Rocher Fondu rapids of the Ottawa River. The other, Madawaska Kanu Centre, teaches whitewater kayaking and canoeing in the Madawaska River,just east of Algonquin Park.

Both locations are committed to green practices, including how they prepare and buy food, as well as in the day-to-day operation of their ecolodges. They both use reusable plates and cutlery, have solar-assisted showers and composting toilets (which reduce 90 per cent of sewage waste), grow their own produce, maintain their own livestock and only buy local when they need something they don't have on hand.

In Ottawa, a busier water thoroughfare,the company also organizes an annual shoreline cleanup, with volunteers picking up garbage left behind. "Our business revolves around healthy waterways so we do our utmost to respect them," says Vincent Boyer, a manager with the company.

Visit owlrafting.com for more information.

- GAYLE MACDONALD

4. THE EPIC ARCTIC TRIP - It has been called the polar bear - capital of the world and there is - no question that Churchill, Man., is one of the best places to indulge - in a passion for these cuddly looking predators in the Arctic tundra, - their natural habitat, on Hud- son's Bay's rugged coast.

Seal River Heritage Lodge is - the flagship ecolodge of tour ops erator Churchill Wild, which - prides itself on a minimalist, suse tainable and responsible ap- proach to luxury Arctic safaris a that allow travellers to get up close and personal with bears,be- lugas, caribou, Arctic foxes, birds - and countless other Arctic species. Most of the daily excursions, d for instance, are conducted by w foot to minimize impact on the s environment and interference - with the wildlife.

The lodge runs primarily on - solar power, operates greywater s recycling systems, maintains a - strict waste, water and compost e program and offers locally for, aged foods as well as organic prod duce grown in a recently built d greenhouse in southern part of n the province. Smaller changes include using biodegradable clean- ing products and energy-saving - lights and appliances. Each trip is - capped at 16 guests to lessen the p footprint and resources used.

Churchill Wild's founders and - owners,Mike and Jeanne Reimer, o have been hosting Arctic safari t trips since 1993. In 2015, two of - Churchill Wild's three lodges,Seal River Heritage Lodge and Nanuk - Polar Bear Lodge, became members of the National Geographic Unique Lodges of the World, a collection of hotels dedicated to protecting the surrounding habitats and cultures.

Visit churchill wild.com for more information.

- G.M.

5. A PLACE IN PARADISE Taking a "green tour" may not seem like a priority after making the long journey to Tetiaroa, an atoll not far from Tahiti, in the South Pacific, but at premium luxury resort the Brando, getting a view of the back of the house is something the staff are exceptionally proud to show off and something they suggest every visitor see.

It's easy to be impressed by the spacious villas, five-star service and unmatched blues of the ocean - this is a place where Leonardo DiCaprio and Barack Obama have each vacationed - but Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design platinum-certified Brando wants guests to have equal admiration for the sustainability efforts of the property.

In French Polynesia, air conditioning accounts for 60 per cent of resort electricity bills; in response the Brando uses seawater air conditioning, chilled water from the ocean's depths, as the coolingsourceforits35villas.The Brando has the largest solar field in the country, which produces two-thirds of the island's energy.

Currently a generator, fuelled by coconut oil and other biofuels, is usedfrommidnightto8a.m.,but the goal is to be on natural power round the clock. Rainwater is collected and used for laundry, glass is ground and used inpaving projects and the compost program is so successful the resort sells its extra to a company in Tahiti.

All staff must sign a commitment to the company's environmental charter and if guests want to get around they must do so by bicycle or on foot. Make no mistake, Tetiaroa is paradise and The Brando a once-in-a-lifetime tropical escape. But those who manage the property know without the island there would benodraw and so they make protecting it part of the appeal.

For more information, visit the brando.com.

- MARYAM SIDDIQI


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The Trump impeachment hearings better be a small-screen blockbuster
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These proceedings will be sliced, diced and derided by Fox News and other Trump-supporting outlets - that's why sensational testimony is essential from the get-go
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Tuesday, November 12, 2019 – Page A13

TELEVISION I n the matter of the public impeachment hearings starting Wednesday and going live on TV, it is important to be prepared. Specifically, be prepared for a nothing-burger.

This assertion shouldn't startle anyone. Even the Democrats hoping to convince the American public that U.S. President Donald Trump and a gaggle of cronies pressured Ukraine to announce an investigation into former U.S. vice-president Joe Biden, in return for preauthorized military aid, know what's on the line. As CNN's Lauren Fox reported the other day, an anonymous senior Democrat told her, "The first hour of a hearing and the first hearing has got to be a blockbuster."

The possibility of a TV blockbuster turning into a nothingburger is very real. Televised hearings in Washington are nothing new. The TV theatre of it is familiar, but the TV dynamics have changed.

In 1973, the Senate Watergate hearings unfolded when there were three network TV channels, plus PBS, then in its infancy, and there were hundreds of newspapers with millions of readers.

The three U.S. networks rotated live coverage and PBS rebroadcast each day's complete proceedings in the evening for those unable to watch during the day.

Part of the attraction was the array of colourful figures in the Nixon administration that viewers had only read about.

Tens of millions watched the evening coverage on PBS, anchored by Robert MacNeil and Jim Lehrer, who did almost no punditry or commentary and merely summarized what had happened and outlined who the players at the hearings were.

Sometimes they interviewed experts on the U.S. government's internal workings.

Yet the Watergate hearings were a monumental event in recent U.S. history. In part that was because, although it was live television, the story wrote itself.

Democrats who were alleging that Richard Nixon and his team had acted nefariously were careful to build a case, step by step.

The hearings opened with testimony from, and the questioning of, bit-players in the story, and moved up the chain of command to Nixon's inner circle. It was gripping TV because it played out as a slow-burning drama moving ever closer and closer to the Oval Office.

The setting and the story told contrasts sharply with today's U.S. political and media landscape. But it's not just about the gap in time. Even the most recent televised impeachment hearing, aimed at impeaching Bill Clinton, also took place in a vastly different atmosphere.

For a start, the Clinton saga started in January, 1994, with an independent counsel investigating financial irregularities in the dealings of the Whitewater property company and the involvement of the Clintons, and their business partners. In August of that year, the independent counsel was replaced by the more combative and conservative Kenneth Starr. At the time Starr started work, Monica Lewinsky was still in college. Also, at that time Paula Jones had only just filed a sexual harassment suit against Clinton based on his alleged actions in 1991.

It would be several years before what started as a land-development entanglement exploded into a sex scandal. But when it exploded, it certainly meant fireworks. Just before Christmas, 1997, lawyers for Jones subpoenaed Lewinsky, hoping to prove a pattern of behaviour by Clinton. In an affidavit, Lewinsky denied an affair with Clinton, hoping to avoid testifying. But her friend Linda Tripp had taped their phone conversations and offered the tapes to Starr. Within months, there was a full-blown sex scandal and the public was hearing about the secret tapes, oral sex in the Oval Office and the porn magazine Penthouse was in court arguing its right to publish nude photos of Jones. By the time that impeachment hearings were on live TV, there was enough sensational detail to guarantee an audience hungry for more.

The Clinton saga was like a lurid, high-stakes soap-opera. New and sensational developments came out of the blue. It was water-cooler conversation. It was about a guy denying having sex with "that woman." It was both lascivious content and relatable: the cheating husband and the intern, and all the lies woven around that.

What connects the Clinton impeachment hearings narrative to this week's event is the crucial role of the internet. In January, 1998, the little-known conservative news aggregation site Drudge Report carried a report claiming that Newsweek had sat on a story about president Clinton's relationship with Lewinsky.

That item kick-started a frenzy of coverage and it emboldened mainstream news outlets to cover the sex scandal. In The Washington Post, media columnist Howard Kurtz wondered whether "the furious pace of the coverage has all but shattered traditional media standards."

It did. The internet was in its infancy, but the Clinton scandal established the Drudge Report as an influential outlet. Just as, ironically, the very sober PBS had been made to seem essential by the Watergate scandal. The Fox News Channel was also in its infancy, established in 1996, but only available in about 10 million homes and most of those homes were not in the major east or west coast markets.

The big live TV event that begins on Wednesday has nothing like the context that framed the Watergate and Clinton hearings.

(The top U.S. diplomat in Ukraine, Bill Taylor, and another senior diplomat, George Kent, will appear first. The hearings will resume Friday with the former U.S.

ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch testifying. All will be asked what they knew about Trump and Rudy Giuliani's dealings with Ukraine.) Fox News will play a significant role. It already has its own narrative: Trump's quid pro quo with Ukraine might have been mildly inappropriate, but it's not at the level of impeachment. For good measure, Fox also takes the view that nobody really cares about the Ukraine scandal. Fox News's Jesse Watters on Friday shouted: "No one can find Ukraine on a map!"

Each cable news outlet will construe the hearings in its own way, with its own biases and inclinations. Twitter will play a role, as it has since the start of the Trump presidency. Other social-media sites will undercut the relevancy of the live televised hearings with wild conspiracy theories floated and witnesses attacked. CNN's Jake Tapper has already been the subject of a bizarre Twitter smear campaign alleging that he's close friends with the lawyer representing the whistle-blower whose report brought the Ukraine scandal to light. Tapper says he's never met the lawyer, let alone been friendly with the man. Meanwhile, regular CNN pundit Max Boot called Fox's Sean Hannity the "de facto minister of propaganda" for the Trump administration in the matter of Ukraine.

It's a fevered atmosphere, with the further demonizing of Trump, ahead of next year's election, at the heart of it. The likelihood of an actual impeachment is remote. What those pushing for impeachment really want is to expose is Trump's quid-proquo as a shakedown and outright bribery, and typical of his behaviour. And they want it on live TV to be convincing. Career civil servants will testify. Perhaps they have shocking revelations, and perhaps the public will shrug. After all, these hearings will be sliced and diced and not so much analyzed as they will be derided by Fox News and other Trump-supporting outlets.

That's why blockbuster testimony is essential from the getgo. Those who wanted to feed on proof of Trump's nefariousness expected their fill from the Mueller report and Robert Mueller's testimony, and they got a nothing-burger. That TV drama amounted to dull content and anyone with high hopes for this one should remember that.

Associated Graphic

Members of the Senate Watergate Committee are seen during a hearing on Capitol Hill in Washington as they listen to witness Robert Odle, foreground, in May, 1973. The hearings were held when there were only three network TV channels and PBS. The major networks rotated live coverage, with PBS rebroadcasting the proceedings in the evenings for people who missed them.

PHOTOS BY ASSOCIATED PRESS

The Senate Watergate Committee listens as Lieutenant-General Vernon Walters testifies in August, 1973. Tens of millions of people watched PBS's evening coverage of the hearings, which were a monumental event in recent U.S. history.


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MUSIC MOGUL FOUND AUDIENCES FOR EMERGING CANADIAN TALENT
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Working for Capitol and CBS, he advanced the careers of Anne Murray, Loverboy, Platinum Blonde and many others, and later, when he shifted into publishing, he helped Ms. Murray get a book deal for her memoirs
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By SUSAN FERRIER MACKAY
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Thursday, October 31, 2019 – Page B19

Music mogul Arnold Gosewich played an integral part in setting the stage for today's vibrant Canadian music scene. As president and COO of Capitol Records Canada (1969 to 1977), he advanced the careers of Anne Murray, Edward Bear, Sugar Shoppe, Pierre Lalonde and Beau Dommage while at the same time providing distribution for smaller independent labels that signed bands such as Rush and April Wine.

Moving on to become chairman of CBS Canada (1977 to 1982), now Sony Records, Mr. Gosewich indirectly oversaw artists such as Loverboy, Platinum Blonde, Gowan and Dan Hill, garnering huge sales for the label, while the francophone branch chalked up multiplatinum successes with superstar Celine Dion.

During his years at the helm of two of the country's biggest labels Mr. Gosewich also served as president of the Canadian Industry Recording Association (now Music Canada), and as a director of the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame. In 1973, he received the Juno Awards music industry Man of the Year award, an institution for which he helped lay some of the groundwork. Mr. Gosewich died suddenly of natural causes at his home in Toronto on Oct. 20.

He was 85.

When Mr. Gosewich took over as president of Capital Records Canada in 1969, the company was losing $1-million a year. Complicating matters, the Canadian market was dismissed as something of a backwater. Opportunities for local artists to be promoted, or even heard, were slim.

Large multinational companies existed primarily to distribute and sell records by foreign artists, mainly from the United States and Britain. Fortunately for both Capitol, and Mr. Gosewich, in 1971 the Canadian government passed legislation requiring that a percentage of all artists on radio be Canadian. He was perfectly positioned to take advantage of the new requirement for Can Con, or Canadian content. At the time, Mr. Gosewich saw himself as being "just a kid in his 30s," albeit a quick study when it came to profit. "I can't say I was a passionate record man. I loved the music but I loved the chance to make money more."

As long as Mr. Gosewich turned a profit for Capitol Canada, its parent company in the U.S. granted him autonomy. He disliked what he perceived to be outside interference and fought for budgets to promote artists. In 1972, he joined forces with Australian journalist Ritchie Yorke in organizing a media junket called Maple Music to showcase Canadian talent. During an interview with musician/journalist/broadcaster Bill King for FYI Music News, Mr.

Gosewich said he had no idea what a monumental task he had undertaken.

"It was all-expenses-paid. I convinced Air Canada to give us a plane at no charge to bring foreign journalists and media to Canada." Concerts took place in Montreal at Place des Arts and in Toronto at Massey Hall. "It wasn't easy," he said. "A lot of these acts had managers that had to be convinced. The artists wouldn't be paid. Some managers fought over that. Eventually they gave in.

They were smart enough to know better."

One manager who went along with the ambitious promotional scheme was Bernie Finkelstein, then guiding the careers of artists Bruce Cockburn, Murray McLaughlin and Rough Trade, among others, under his label True North Records.

"I remember meeting Arnold and Sam Sniderman late at night at Sam the Chinese Food Man, right beside Sam the Record Man," Mr. Finkelstein said. "Arnold pressured me in a gentle way. He was a dealmaker. He wanted to make things work." A large part of Mr. Gosewich's talent lay in trusting the people around him. He told Mr. King, "I never pretended I had the ears to pick the winners. That was for the people who worked in A&R and for the people in the promotion department. What they had to say was more important to me than what I thought of the music." One talented A&R man whom Mr. Gosewich inherited at Capital Records was Paul White, the man responsible for signing Anne Murray. The young singer from Nova Scotia created musical history with her 1970 smash single Snowbird, becoming the first Canadian solo female artist to have a gold record in the United States.

Ms. Murray remembers Mr. Gosewich as being "a very classy guy." "He was president of Capitol records at a very formative time in my career. It was always a pleasure to work with him," she said in a telephone interview.

Years later, learning that Mr.

Gosewich had left the music business and become a literary agent, she sought him out to represent her 2009 autobiography All of Me.

"I got in touch because I knew him and I trusted him," she said.

"He got me a publishing deal. He did a good job."

To anyone curious about his transition from music to book publishing, Mr. Gosewich explained: "It's very simple. I tell people who know me well that I'm a person who has existed on circumstances. All my life, circumstances have dictated what I've done." In the late 1980s, he had been attending an arts conference in Banff when he found himself having a beer with Ron Besse, a man who had purchased the publishing house MacMillan of Canada. It was another company losing money. After returning to Toronto, impressed by Mr. Gosewich, Mr. Besse got in touch and offered him the job of chief operating officer to turn MacMillan around.

Mr. Gosewich confessed he hardly ever read books, but Mr.

Besse was interested in his serious business acumen rather than his familiarity with the written word. The timing was good. Mr.

Gosewich felt he had gone as far as he could in the music business without making the requisite move to the U.S. Happily married with two young children, he wanted to keep his family in Canada. He felt he was still flexible enough to shift to a new field. Seven years after joining MacMillan he became a partner in the MGA Literary Agency, before establishing his own agency and book publishing company in 1992. "My father was a man who loved a challenge. It's a coincidence that the areas he succeeded in fell within the cultural realm," Stephen Gosewich said. "He would've succeeded in anything he set his mind to."

Arnold Gosewich was born in Ottawa on Feb. 23, 1934, the middle son of three. His father, Sam, manufactured baseball caps, men's fur hats and hats for women. Arnold said his father was a hard worker.

The family lived in an area of Ottawa called Lowertown, where French-speaking kids regularly scuffled with Jewish kids. Arnold was an indifferent student with no ambitions toward further education until he saw it as an opportunity to get out of town with some buddies. He attended Clarkson University in Potsdam, N.Y., graduating in the mid-1950s with an honours degree in business administration. With experience working for college radio, where he used the moniker Arkansas Arn, he and university classmate Harvey Glatt, also from Ottawa, decided they would open a retail music store in their hometown.

The Treble Clef, devoted solely to music, was an anomaly in 1957, when recordings were distributed through department stores such as Zellers or through record clubs that sent customers their selections by mail. The Treble Clef was a success, but Mr. Gosewich left to join Sherman's Records as vicepresident and treasurer shortly before its acquisition by Capitol in Los Angeles in 1968. Once again, circumstance laid out the path he would follow.

Mr. Gosewich leaves Jackee, his wife of almost 63 years; his son, Stephen; daughter, Robin; brother, Philip; and four grandchildren.

"Arnold always remained loyal to the people he believed in," said Frank Davies, a record producer whose label was distributed by Capitol in the 1970s. "He was a nononsense, shoot-from-the-hip kinda guy to those who worked for and with him. The music business in Canada is a far better place for his numerous contributions all those years ago."

Associated Graphic

During his time as chairman of CBS Canada, now Sony Records, Arnold Gosewich indirectly oversaw artists such as Gowan and Dan Hill, garnering huge sales for the label, while the company's francophone branch chalked up multiplatinum successes with superstar Celine Dion.

COURTESY OF THE FAMILY


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Seeing the world anew with Emily Carr
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Audain Art Museum exhibition traces the painter's journey through France and how her work changed once she became exposed to modernist techniques
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By MARSHA LEDERMAN
  
  

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Saturday, November 9, 2019 – Page R8

WHISTLER, B.C. -- In 1910, Emily Carr travelled to France on a transformative trip that would expose her to new techniques and landscapes, and have a dramatic influence on her work. The trip led to "fresh seeing," a phrase that would come to serve as the title of a lecture she would give about the experience years later in Victoria. (The phrase was hers; the lecture was given that title when it was published in 1972.)

It's also been incorporated into the name of a new exhibition at the Audain Art Museum that brings together work that emerged from this seminal trip.

Emily Carr: Fresh Seeing - French Modernism and the West Coast includes work by influential teachers Carr encountered in France; paintings she made while there and after the trip; and, in a particularly illuminating part of the exhibition, work she made before the trip in British Columbia, and new versions she created after she returned with those fresh eyes.

The exhibition brings together more than 50 of her paintings - many of which belong to private andcorporatecollectionsandare being exhibited for the first time in decades. It also breaks new groundinEmilyCarrscholarship, led by guest co-curator Kathryn Bridge, a noted Carr scholar, and the museum's Gail & Stephen A.

Jarislowsky Curator Kiriko Watanabe, who separately travelled to France to conduct research by walking in Carr's footsteps.

Emily Carr travelled to Paris with her sister Alice, who had learned French for the occasion; Emily did not speak the language. They rented a small apartment in the Latin Quarter, and Carr began art classes a short walk from home. But Carr's health issues made the city intolerable, and she moved to the small medieval town of Crécy-enBrie with one of her instructors, Harry Phelan Gibb, and his wife.

The group later moved to Brittany.

Bridge travelled to these places with photos of Carr's work on her iPad and went about conducting detective work. She was able to match some of Carr's paintings with their actual locations-somethingthatwasnotas easy as it sounds, given the generic titles these paintings were later given, mostly by the executors of her estate. Carr shipped home likely 100 oil paintings and watercolours or more, but few sold during her lifetime.

ItisamazingtoseeCarr'swork next to photos taken during Bridge's trip. Carr's oil on board Crécy-en-Brie, 1911, shows the samedetailsasthe2018photo-a wrought iron balcony, small washing sheds. In another instance, Village by the Sea, 1911, is installed next to a photo of the same view in Saint-Michel-enGrève taken in 2018; Bridge discovered that Carr would have had to make quite a trek up a hill and around the water in order to sketch the village from that perspective. The watercolour over charcoal Village Square with Cross No. 1, 1911, is exhibited next to photo from Bridge's trip of a small church in Lanriec, clearly showing the same monument.

Other paintings from France are paired with historical photographs of the same setting, also dug up by Bridge.

The exhibition, and the excellent accompanying catalogue, quote extensively from Carr's own writing - drawing largely from her original, unpublished manuscripts.

Matching the text with the paintings also led to discoveries about Carr's time in France. The 1911 oil Four Children in a Breton Cottage is displayed with a piece of Carr's writing. She describes a stone cottage on a hill - a woman with four children, a big open hearth with a huge iron pot hangingoverthefire,theearthen floor swept clean: just what you see in the painting.

The exhibition also documents the transformation in Carr's work. In Le Paysage (Brittany Landscape), 1911, the blue sky is a modernist expression, with

bold blue brush strokes against exposed board; the landscape is highly textured, created with layers and layers of paint; and the trees and cottages are boldly outlined.

It is an astonishing contrast from the first painting in the show, an example of what was likely Carr's earlier work in France, a small, darker oil on board, Old Mill House, Near Paris, c. 1910, that is more conservative and realist in tone.

Le Paysage was last exhibited more than a century ago, in 1913, at the Island Arts and Crafts Club in Victoria. It was also one of two works of Carr's that were included in the prestigious 1911 Salon d'Automne in Paris. Carr was one of only three Canadian artists in the show.

She may have been encouraged to submit the paintings by Phelan Gibb who, before Carr movedon,toldher:"'Ifyougoon [with your painting] you should be one of the women painters of the world,'" Carr wrote. "I held my breath and looked at him in pure amazement."

After 16 months away, Carr arrived in Victoria in November, 1911, with a new painting style - a radical transformation over such a brief period of time. Back home, she returned to some of the work she had made in British Columbia documenting First Nations culture, creating new versions with a new modernist style.

The show includes several before-and-after examples. War Canoes,AlertBay,1912isaknockout; a bold and colourful oil version of the more conservative, sombre watercolour Carr had made in 1908. The difference transcends the aesthetic. As Watanabe points out in her catalogue essay, the original conveys the mood of a deserted seaside. For me, the 1912 version feels more alive - depicting a living, vibrant culture.

That is not to say the early watercolours aren't remarkable - or historically valuable. Carr's work in these communities offers an important historical record. As Gitxsan artist Ya'Ya Heit, interviewed by Watanabe for the show, says, "I see where my family poles were. I see what the village was like. ... There's life with those poles - that's part of Emily's accomplishment."

In the summer of 1912, Carr travelled for six weeks up the Northwest Coast to First Nations communities in British Columbia, visiting Gitxsan, Wet'suwet'en, Haida and Kwakwaka'wakw communities - some of which were very remote. The exhibition concludes with some of the works that emerged from that trip.Carrbelievedhernewwayof seeing enabled her to better capture this world - even if the work wasn't necessarily popular with her B.C. audience.

Carr delivered that "Fresh Seeing" speech to the Women's Canadian Club of Victoria in 1930 - a rare public address that coincided with a major exhibition, her first in her hometown. In that address, she tells the audience that she knows many of them "cordially detest" modern art, but then she works to persuade them. "The art world was fed up, saturated with lifeless stodge - something had to happen," she told them. "And it did."

Emily Carr: Fresh Seeing - French Modernism and the West Coast is at the Audain Art Museum in Whistler until January 19. It is at the Beaverbrook Art Gallery in Fredericton Feb. 29 - May 31.

Associated Graphic

Emily Carr's painting Le Paysage (Brittany Landscape), 1911, is one of many paintings being shown at Emily Carr: Fresh Seeing - French Modernism and the West Coast that has not been part of an exhibition for decades. In the case of Le Paysage, it was last exhibited more than a century ago in 1913 and was one of Carr's works included in the 1911 Salon d'Automne in Paris.

TREVOR MILLS/ VANCOUVER ART GALLERY

Guest co-curator of the exhibition Kathryn Bridge travelled to the same places Emily Carr visited on her journey through France and took photos of the locations to pair with the art - no easy feat given the vague titles bestowed on much of Carr's work by her estate, such as Village by the Sea in the case of the painting above. The painting depicts a view of Saint-Michel-en-Grève, France, seen below. At the Audain Art Museum, the painting is installed next to a photo of the village taken in 2018.

ABOVE: AGNES ETHERINGTON ART CENTRE, QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY; BELOW: K. NEARLY

Upon returning from France, Carr reworked some of her older paintings in her new modernist style. At the Audain exhibition, the conservative, sombre watercolour version of War Canoes, Alert Bay from 1908 is juxtaposed with a bold and colourful oil version from 1912.

ABOVE: TOM AND TERESA GAUTREAU COLLECTION; BELOW: RACHEL TOPHAM/VANCOUVER ART GALLERY


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England, South Africa set for monumental final at Rugby World Cup
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